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Local Interpretations for Explainable Natural Language Processing: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As the use of deep learning techniques has grown across various fields over the past decade, complaints about the opaqueness of the black-box models have increased, resulting in an increased focus on transparency in deep learning models. This work investigates various methods to improve the interpretability of deep neural networks for natural language processing (NLP) tasks, including machine translation and sentiment analysis. We provide a comprehensive discussion on the definition of the term \textit{interpretability} and its various aspects at the beginning of this work. The methods collected and summarised in this survey are only associated with local interpretation and are divided into three categories: 1) explaining the model's predictions through related input features; 2) explaining through natural language explanation; 3) probing the hidden states of models and word representations.


Teach Me to Explain: A Review of Datasets for Explainable NLP

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainable NLP (ExNLP) has increasingly focused on collecting human-annotated explanations. These explanations are used downstream in three ways: as data augmentation to improve performance on a predictive task, as a loss signal to train models to produce explanations for their predictions, and as a means to evaluate the quality of model-generated explanations. In this review, we identify three predominant classes of explanations (highlights, free-text, and structured), organize the literature on annotating each type, point to what has been learned to date, and give recommendations for collecting ExNLP datasets in the future.


Explainable Automated Fact-Checking for Public Health Claims

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Fact-checking is the task of verifying the veracity of claims by assessing their assertions against credible evidence. The vast majority of fact-checking studies focus exclusively on political claims. Very little research explores fact-checking for other topics, specifically subject matters for which expertise is required. We present the first study of explainable fact-checking for claims which require specific expertise. For our case study we choose the setting of public health. To support this case study we construct a new dataset PUBHEALTH of 11.8K claims accompanied by journalist crafted, gold standard explanations (i.e., judgments) to support the fact-check labels for claims. We explore two tasks: veracity prediction and explanation generation. We also define and evaluate, with humans and computationally, three coherence properties of explanation quality. Our results indicate that, by training on in-domain data, gains can be made in explainable, automated fact-checking for claims which require specific expertise.


Explainable Automated Fact-Checking: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A number of exciting advances have been made in automated fact-checking thanks to increasingly larger datasets and more powerful systems, leading to improvements in the complexity of claims which can be accurately fact-checked. However, despite these advances, there are still desirable functionalities missing from the fact-checking pipeline. In this survey, we focus on the explanation functionality -- that is fact-checking systems providing reasons for their predictions. We summarize existing methods for explaining the predictions of fact-checking systems and we explore trends in this topic. Further, we consider what makes for good explanations in this specific domain through a comparative analysis of existing fact-checking explanations against some desirable properties. Finally, we propose further research directions for generating fact-checking explanations, and describe how these may lead to improvements in the research area.


A Survey of the State of Explainable AI for Natural Language Processing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent years have seen important advances in the quality of state-of-the-art models, but this has come at the expense of models becoming less interpretable. This survey presents an overview of the current state of Explainable AI (XAI), considered within the domain of Natural Language Processing (NLP). We discuss the main categorization of explanations, as well as the various ways explanations can be arrived at and visualized. We detail the operations and explainability techniques currently available for generating explanations for NLP model predictions, to serve as a resource for model developers in the community. Finally, we point out the current gaps and encourage directions for future work in this important research area.