A Generalization of the Chow-Liu Algorithm and its Application to Statistical Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We extend the Chow-Liu algorithm for general random variables while the previous versions only considered finite cases. In particular, this paper applies the generalization to Suzuki's learning algorithm that generates from data forests rather than trees based on the minimum description length by balancing the fitness of the data to the forest and the simplicity of the forest. As a result, we successfully obtain an algorithm when both of the Gaussian and finite random variables are present.

Phase transitions and sample complexity in Bayes-optimal matrix factorization

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We analyse the matrix factorization problem. Given a noisy measurement of a product of two matrices, the problem is to estimate back the original matrices. It arises in many applications such as dictionary learning, blind matrix calibration, sparse principal component analysis, blind source separation, low rank matrix completion, robust principal component analysis or factor analysis. It is also important in machine learning: unsupervised representation learning can often be studied through matrix factorization. We use the tools of statistical mechanics - the cavity and replica methods - to analyze the achievability and computational tractability of the inference problems in the setting of Bayes-optimal inference, which amounts to assuming that the two matrices have random independent elements generated from some known distribution, and this information is available to the inference algorithm. In this setting, we compute the minimal mean-squared-error achievable in principle in any computational time, and the error that can be achieved by an efficient approximate message passing algorithm. The computation is based on the asymptotic state-evolution analysis of the algorithm. The performance that our analysis predicts, both in terms of the achieved mean-squared-error, and in terms of sample complexity, is extremely promising and motivating for a further development of the algorithm.

SpamCop: A Spam Classification & Organization Program

AAAI Conferences

Patrick Pantel and Dekang Lin Department of Computer Science University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada R3T 2N2 Abstract We present a simple, yet highly accurate, spam filtering program, called SpamCop, which is able to identify about 92% of the spams while misclassifying only about 1.16% of the nonspam emails. SpamCop treats an email message as a multiset of words and employs a na'fve Bayes algorithm to determine whether or not a message is likely to be a spam. Compared with keyword-spotting rules, the probabilistic approach taken in SpamCop not only offers high accuracy, but also overcomes the brittleness suffered by the keyword spotting approach. Introduction With the explosive growth of the Internet, so too comes the proliferation of spams. Spammers collect a plethora of email addresses without the consent of the owners of these addresses.

RNA Modeling Using Gibbs Sampling and Stochastic Context Free Grammars

AAAI Conferences

Leslie Grate and Mark Herbster and Richard Hughey and David Haussler Baskin (;enter for Computer Engineering and Computer and Information Sciences University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Keywords: RNA secondary structure, Gibbs sampler, Expectation Maximization, stochastic contextfree grammars, hidden Markov models, tP NA, snRNA, 16S rRNA, linguistic methods Abstract A new method of discovering the common secondary structure of a family of homologous RNA sequences using Gibbs sampling and stochastic context-free grammars is proposed. These parameters describe a statistical model of the family. After the Gibbs sampling has produced a crude statistical model for the family, this model is translated into a stochastic context-free grammar, which is then refined by an Expectation Maximization (EM) procedure produce a more complete model. A prototype implementation of the method is tested on tRNA, pieces of 16S rRNA and on U5 snRNA with good results. I. Saira Mian and Harry Noller Sinsheimer Laboratories University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 Introduction Tools for analyzing RNA are becoming increasingly important as in vitro evolution and selection techniques produce greater numbers of synthesized RNA families to supplement those related by phylogeny. Two principal methods have been established for predicting RNA secondary structure base pairings. The second technique employs thermodynamics to compare the free energy changes predicted for formation of possible s,'covdary structure and relies on finding the structure with the lowest free energy (Tinoco Jr., Uhlenbeck, & Levine 1971: Turner, Sugimoto, & Freier 1988; *This work was supported in part by NSF grants C,I)A-9115268 and IR1-9123692, and NIIt gratnt (.;M17129. When several related sequences are available that all share a common secondary structure, combinations of different approaches have been used to obtain improved results (Waterman 1989; Le & Zuker 1991; Han& Kim 1993; Chiu & Kolodziejczak 1991; Sankoff 1985; Winker et al. 1990; Lapedes 1992; Klinger & Brutlag 1993; Gutell et aL 1992). Recent efforts have applied Stochastic Context-Free Grammars (SCFGs) to the problems of statistical modeling, multiple alignment, discrimination and prediction of the secondary structure of RNA families (Sakakibara el al. 1994; 1993; Eddy & Durbin 1994; Searls 1993).