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Trustworthy AI: A Computational Perspective

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the past few decades, artificial intelligence (AI) technology has experienced swift developments, changing everyone's daily life and profoundly altering the course of human society. The intention of developing AI is to benefit humans, by reducing human labor, bringing everyday convenience to human lives, and promoting social good. However, recent research and AI applications show that AI can cause unintentional harm to humans, such as making unreliable decisions in safety-critical scenarios or undermining fairness by inadvertently discriminating against one group. Thus, trustworthy AI has attracted immense attention recently, which requires careful consideration to avoid the adverse effects that AI may bring to humans, so that humans can fully trust and live in harmony with AI technologies. Recent years have witnessed a tremendous amount of research on trustworthy AI. In this survey, we present a comprehensive survey of trustworthy AI from a computational perspective, to help readers understand the latest technologies for achieving trustworthy AI. Trustworthy AI is a large and complex area, involving various dimensions. In this work, we focus on six of the most crucial dimensions in achieving trustworthy AI: (i) Safety & Robustness, (ii) Non-discrimination & Fairness, (iii) Explainability, (iv) Privacy, (v) Accountability & Auditability, and (vi) Environmental Well-Being. For each dimension, we review the recent related technologies according to a taxonomy and summarize their applications in real-world systems. We also discuss the accordant and conflicting interactions among different dimensions and discuss potential aspects for trustworthy AI to investigate in the future.


Technologies for Trustworthy Machine Learning: A Survey in a Socio-Technical Context

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Concerns about the societal impact of AI-based services and systems has encouraged governments and other organisations around the world to propose AI policy frameworks to address fairness, accountability, transparency and related topics. To achieve the objectives of these frameworks, the data and software engineers who build machine-learning systems require knowledge about a variety of relevant supporting tools and techniques. In this paper we provide an overview of technologies that support building trustworthy machine learning systems, i.e., systems whose properties justify that people place trust in them. We argue that four categories of system properties are instrumental in achieving the policy objectives, namely fairness, explainability, auditability and safety & security (FEAS). We discuss how these properties need to be considered across all stages of the machine learning life cycle, from data collection through run-time model inference. As a consequence, we survey in this paper the main technologies with respect to all four of the FEAS properties, for data-centric as well as model-centric stages of the machine learning system life cycle. We conclude with an identification of open research problems, with a particular focus on the connection between trustworthy machine learning technologies and their implications for individuals and society.


Know Your Model (KYM): Increasing Trust in AI and Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The widespread utilization of AI systems has drawn attention to the potential impacts of such systems on society. Of particular concern are the consequences that prediction errors may have on real-world scenarios, and the trust humanity places in AI systems. It is necessary to understand how we can evaluate trustworthiness in AI and how individuals and entities alike can develop trustworthy AI systems. In this paper, we analyze each element of trustworthiness and provide a set of 20 guidelines that can be leveraged to ensure optimal AI functionality while taking into account the greater ethical, technical, and practical impacts to humanity. Moreover, the guidelines help ensure that trustworthiness is provable and can be demonstrated, they are implementation agnostic, and they can be applied to any AI system in any sector.


Practical Machine Learning Safety: A Survey and Primer

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Among different ML models, Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) [130] are well-known and widely used for their powerful representation learning from high-dimensional data such as images, texts, and speech. However, as ML algorithms enter sensitive real-world domains with trustworthiness, safety, and fairness prerequisites, the need for corresponding techniques and metrics for high-stake domains is more noticeable than before. Hence, researchers in different fields propose guidelines for Trustworthy AI [208], Safe AI [5], and Explainable AI [155] as stepping stones for next generation Responsible AI [6, 247]. Furthermore, government reports and regulations on AI accountability [75], trustworthiness [216], and safety [31] are gradually creating mandating laws to protect citizens' data privacy, fair data processing, and upholding safety for AI-based products. The development and deployment of ML algorithms for open-world tasks come with reliability and dependability limitations rooting from model performance, robustness, and uncertainty limitations [156]. Unlike traditional code-based software, ML models have fundamental safety drawbacks, including performance limitations on their training set and run-time robustness in their operational domain.


The relationship between trust in AI and trustworthy machine learning technologies

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To build AI-based systems that users and the public can justifiably trust one needs to understand how machine learning technologies impact trust put in these services. To guide technology developments, this paper provides a systematic approach to relate social science concepts of trust with the technologies used in AI-based services and products. We conceive trust as discussed in the ABI (Ability, Benevolence, Integrity) framework and use a recently proposed mapping of ABI on qualities of technologies. We consider four categories of machine learning technologies, namely these for Fairness, Explainability, Auditability and Safety (FEAS) and discuss if and how these possess the required qualities. Trust can be impacted throughout the life cycle of AI-based systems, and we introduce the concept of Chain of Trust to discuss technological needs for trust in different stages of the life cycle. FEAS has obvious relations with known frameworks and therefore we relate FEAS to a variety of international Principled AI policy and technology frameworks that have emerged in recent years.