Knowles, David, Ghahramani, Zoubin

A nonparametric Bayesian extension of Factor Analysis (FA) is proposed where observed data $\mathbf{Y}$ is modeled as a linear superposition, $\mathbf{G}$, of a potentially infinite number of hidden factors, $\mathbf{X}$. The Indian Buffet Process (IBP) is used as a prior on $\mathbf{G}$ to incorporate sparsity and to allow the number of latent features to be inferred. The model's utility for modeling gene expression data is investigated using randomly generated data sets based on a known sparse connectivity matrix for E. Coli, and on three biological data sets of increasing complexity.

Hierarchical learning models, such as mixture models and Bayesian networks, are widely employed for unsupervised learning tasks, such as clustering analysis. They consist of observable and hidden variables, which represent the given data and their hidden generation process, respectively. It has been pointed out that conventional statistical analysis is not applicable to these models, because redundancy of the latent variable produces singularities in the parameter space. In recent years, a method based on algebraic geometry has allowed us to analyze the accuracy of predicting observable variables when using Bayesian estimation. However, how to analyze latent variables has not been sufficiently studied, even though one of the main issues in unsupervised learning is to determine how accurately the latent variable is estimated. A previous study proposed a method that can be used when the range of the latent variable is redundant compared with the model generating data. The present paper extends that method to the situation in which the latent variables have redundant dimensions. We formulate new error functions and derive their asymptotic forms. Calculation of the error functions is demonstrated in two-layered Bayesian networks.

Wan, Qian, Duan, Huiping, Fang, Jun, Li, Hongbin

We consider the problem of robust compressed sensing whose objective is to recover a high-dimensional sparse signal from compressed measurements corrupted by outliers. A new sparse Bayesian learning method is developed for robust compressed sensing. The basic idea of the proposed method is to identify and remove the outliers from sparse signal recovery. To automatically identify the outliers, we employ a set of binary indicator hyperparameters to indicate which observations are outliers. These indicator hyperparameters are treated as random variables and assigned a beta process prior such that their values are confined to be binary. In addition, a Gaussian-inverse Gamma prior is imposed on the sparse signal to promote sparsity. Based on this hierarchical prior model, we develop a variational Bayesian method to estimate the indicator hyperparameters as well as the sparse signal. Simulation results show that the proposed method achieves a substantial performance improvement over existing robust compressed sensing techniques.

Kalantari, Rahi, Ghosh, Joydeep, Zhou, Mingyuan

A nonparametric Bayesian sparse graph linear dynamical system (SGLDS) is proposed to model sequentially observed multivariate data. SGLDS uses the Bernoulli-Poisson link together with a gamma process to generate an infinite dimensional sparse random graph to model state transitions. Depending on the sparsity pattern of the corresponding row and column of the graph affinity matrix, a latent state of SGLDS can be categorized as either a non-dynamic state or a dynamic one. A normal-gamma construction is used to shrink the energy captured by the non-dynamic states, while the dynamic states can be further categorized into live, absorbing, or noise-injection states, which capture different types of dynamical components of the underlying time series. The state-of-the-art performance of SGLDS is demonstrated with experiments on both synthetic and real data.

Jin, J., Yuan, Y., Pan, W., Pham, D. L. T., Tomlin, C. J., Webb, A., Goncalves, J.

This paper begins with considering the identification of sparse linear time-invariant networks described by multivariable ARX models. Such models possess relatively simple structure thus used as a benchmark to promote further research. With identifiability of the network guaranteed, this paper presents an identification method that infers both the Boolean structure of the network and the internal dynamics between nodes. Identification is performed directly from data without any prior knowledge of the system, including its order. The proposed method solves the identification problem using Maximum a posteriori estimation (MAP) but with inseparable penalties for complexity, both in terms of element (order of nonzero connections) and group sparsity (network topology). Such an approach is widely applied in Compressive Sensing (CS) and known as Sparse Bayesian Learning (SBL). We then propose a novel scheme that combines sparse Bayesian and group sparse Bayesian to efficiently solve the problem. The resulted algorithm has a similar form of the standard Sparse Group Lasso (SGL) while with known noise variance, it simplifies to exact re-weighted SGL. The method and the developed toolbox can be applied to infer networks from a wide range of fields, including systems biology applications such as signaling and genetic regulatory networks.