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A Survey on Visual Transformer

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Transformer is a type of deep neural network mainly based on self-attention mechanism which is originally applied in natural language processing field. Inspired by the strong representation ability of transformer, researchers propose to extend transformer for computer vision tasks. Transformer-based models show competitive and even better performance on various visual benchmarks compared to other network types such as convolutional networks and recurrent networks. With high performance and without inductive bias defined by human, transformer is receiving more and more attention from the visual community. In this paper we provide a literature review of these visual transformer models by categorizing them in different tasks and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of these methods. In particular, the main categories include the basic image classification, high-level vision, low-level vision and video processing. The self-attention in computer vision is also briefly revisited as self-attention is the base component in transformer. Efficient transformer methods are included for pushing transformer into real applications on the devices. Finally, we give a discussion about the challenges and further research directions for visual transformers.


A Multimodal Memes Classification: A Survey and Open Research Issues

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Memes are graphics and text overlapped so that together they present concepts that become dubious if one of them is absent. It is spread mostly on social media platforms, in the form of jokes, sarcasm, motivating, etc. After the success of BERT in Natural Language Processing (NLP), researchers inclined to Visual-Linguistic (VL) multimodal problems like memes classification, image captioning, Visual Question Answering (VQA), and many more. Unfortunately, many memes get uploaded each day on social media platforms that need automatic censoring to curb misinformation and hate. Recently, this issue has attracted the attention of researchers and practitioners. State-of-the-art methods that performed significantly on other VL dataset, tends to fail on memes classification. In this context, this work aims to conduct a comprehensive study on memes classification, generally on the VL multimodal problems and cutting edge solutions. We propose a generalized framework for VL problems. We cover the early and next-generation works on VL problems. Finally, we identify and articulate several open research issues and challenges. This is the first study that presents the generalized view of the advanced classification techniques concerning memes classification to the best of our knowledge. We believe this study presents a clear road-map for the Machine Learning (ML) research community to implement and enhance memes classification techniques.


Word2Pix: Word to Pixel Cross Attention Transformer in Visual Grounding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Current one-stage methods for visual grounding encode the language query as one holistic sentence embedding before fusion with visual feature. Such a formulation does not treat each word of a query sentence on par when modeling language to visual attention, therefore prone to neglect words which are less important for sentence embedding but critical for visual grounding. In this paper we propose Word2Pix: a one-stage visual grounding network based on encoder-decoder transformer architecture that enables learning for textual to visual feature correspondence via word to pixel attention. The embedding of each word from the query sentence is treated alike by attending to visual pixels individually instead of single holistic sentence embedding. In this way, each word is given equivalent opportunity to adjust the language to vision attention towards the referent target through multiple stacks of transformer decoder layers. We conduct the experiments on RefCOCO, RefCOCO+ and RefCOCOg datasets and the proposed Word2Pix outperforms existing one-stage methods by a notable margin. The results obtained also show that Word2Pix surpasses two-stage visual grounding models, while at the same time keeping the merits of one-stage paradigm namely end-to-end training and real-time inference speed intact.


E2E-VLP: End-to-End Vision-Language Pre-training Enhanced by Visual Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Vision-language pre-training (VLP) on large-scale image-text pairs has achieved huge success for the cross-modal downstream tasks. The most existing pre-training methods mainly adopt a two-step training procedure, which firstly employs a pre-trained object detector to extract region-based visual features, then concatenates the image representation and text embedding as the input of Transformer to train. However, these methods face problems of using task-specific visual representation of the specific object detector for generic cross-modal understanding, and the computation inefficiency of two-stage pipeline. In this paper, we propose the first end-to-end vision-language pre-trained model for both V+L understanding and generation, namely E2E-VLP, where we build a unified Transformer framework to jointly learn visual representation, and semantic alignments between image and text. We incorporate the tasks of object detection and image captioning into pre-training with a unified Transformer encoder-decoder architecture for enhancing visual learning. An extensive set of experiments have been conducted on well-established vision-language downstream tasks to demonstrate the effectiveness of this novel VLP paradigm.


Attention mechanisms and deep learning for machine vision: A survey of the state of the art

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the advent of state of the art nature-inspired pure attention based models i.e. transformers, and their success in natural language processing (NLP), their extension to machine vision (MV) tasks was inevitable and much felt. Subsequently, vision transformers (ViTs) were introduced which are giving quite a challenge to the established deep learning based machine vision techniques. However, pure attention based models/architectures like transformers require huge data, large training times and large computational resources. Some recent works suggest that combinations of these two varied fields can prove to build systems which have the advantages of both these fields. Accordingly, this state of the art survey paper is introduced which hopefully will help readers get useful information about this interesting and potential research area. A gentle introduction to attention mechanisms is given, followed by a discussion of the popular attention based deep architectures. Subsequently, the major categories of the intersection of attention mechanisms and deep learning for machine vision (MV) based are discussed. Afterwards, the major algorithms, issues and trends within the scope of the paper are discussed.