This paper deals with computational approaches to storytelling, or the production of stories by computers, with a particular attention on the way human creativity is modelled or emulated, also in computational terms. Features relevant to creativity and to stories are analysed, and existing systems are reviewed under the light of that analysis.The extent to which they implement the key features proposed in recent models of computational creativity is discussed. Limitations, avenues of future research and expected trends are outlined.
Features relevant to creativity and to stories are analyzed, and existing systems are reviewed under the light of that analysis. The extent to which they implement the key features proposed in recent models of computational creativity is discussed. Limitations, avenues of future research, and expected trends are outlined. Yet over the last few years there has been a surge of research efforts concerning the combination of both subjects. This article tries to shed light on these efforts.
Automated story generation is the use of an intelligent system to produce a fictional story from a minimal set of inputs. This is a problem that has long been explored by AI researchers, since it strikes at some fundamental research questions in artificial intelligence. To tell a story, an intelligent system has to have a lot of knowledge, both about how to tell a story and about how the world works. These concepts need to be grounded to be able to tell coherent stories. Story generation is therefore an excellent way to know if an intelligent system truly understands something. To understand a concept, one must be able to put that concept into practice -- telling a story in which a concept is used correctly is one way of doing that. For example, if an AI system tells a story about going to a restaurant, as simple as that sounds, we discover very quickly what the system doesn't understand when it messes up basic details. Besides understanding concepts, storytelling also requires an understanding of the listener or reader, known as a theory of mind -- a model of the listener to reason about what needs to be said or what can be left out and still convey a comprehensible story. In addition to these fundamental AI research problems, automated story generation is also worth studying for the applications it may enable. The remainder of this article will present a primer on the field of research that I think my students need to know to get started on research on automated story generation, and that anyone interested in the topic of automated story generation may find it informative. A caveat: since I have been actively researching automated story generation for nearly two decades, this primer will be somewhat biased toward work from my research group and collaborators. We might distinguish between automated story generation and automated plot generation.
Narrative, and in particular storytelling, is an important part of the human experience. Consequently, computational systems that can reason about narrative can be more effective communicators, entertainers, educators, and trainers. One of the central challenges in computational narrative reasoning is narrative generation, the automated creation of meaningful event sequences. There are many factors -- logical and aesthetic -- that contribute to the success of a narrative artifact. Central to this success is its understandability. We argue that the following two attributes of narratives are universal: (a) the logical causal progression of plot, and (b) character believability. Character believability is the perception by the audience that the actions performed by characters do not negatively impact the audience's suspension of disbelief. Specifically, characters must be perceived by the audience to be intentional agents. In this article, we explore the use of refinement search as a technique for solving the narrative generation problem -- to find a sound and believable sequence of character actions that transforms an initial world state into a world state in which goal propositions hold. We describe a novel refinement search planning algorithm -- the Intent-based Partial Order Causal Link (IPOCL) planner -- that, in addition to creating causally sound plot progression, reasons about character intentionality by identifying possible character goals that explain their actions and creating plan structures that explain why those characters commit to their goals. We present the results of an empirical evaluation that demonstrates that narrative plans generated by the IPOCL algorithm support audience comprehension of character intentions better than plans generated by conventional partial-order planners.
Since early days of Artificial Intelligence (AI), one of the We present a computational approach for creating new goals has been to procedurally simulate the human ability types of magical and science fiction objects by of storytelling. Many story generation systems (Meehan extrapolating and combining existing object types. The 1981; Lebowitz 1985; Turner 1992; Pérez y Pérez and approach described here augments the creativity of planbased Sharples 2001; Cavazza, Charles, and Mead 2002; Riedl story generators such as that by Riedl and Young and Young 2010; Gervás et al. 2005) begin with a (2006). We empower a traditional story planner with the predefined world configuration. Such configurations ability to plan with analogies. We incrementally modify include unchangeable facts about the fictional world such behaviors of known objects based on a consistent set of as what objects exist, how they relate to each other and analogies with backward chaining and combine behaviors what events can happen. With the initial world of multiple objects to create a new behavior. The process configuration, story generators build stories, the execution results in a new gadget that can cause desired changes in of which transform and evolve the world. As most story the fictional world that are impossible or improbable to generators accept the initial world as a given rather than achieve by other means.