For challenges that have a reliability bonus, the bonus depends on the reliability rating at the moment of registration for that project. A participant with no previous projects is considered to have no reliability rating, and therefore gets no bonus. Reliability bonus does not apply to Digital Run winnings. Since reliability rating is based on the past 15 projects, it can only have 15 discrete values.
A model connecting visual tracking and saliency has recently been proposed. This model is based on the saliency hypothesis for tracking which postulates that tracking is achieved by the top-down tuning, based on target features, of discriminant center-surround saliency mechanisms over time. In this work, we identify three main predictions that must hold if the hypothesis were true: 1) tracking reliability should be larger for salient than for non-salient targets, 2) tracking reliability should have a dependence on the defining variables of saliency, namely feature contrast and distractor heterogeneity, and must replicate the dependence of saliency on these variables, and 3) saliency and tracking can be implemented with common low level neural mechanisms. We confirm that the first two predictions hold by reporting results from a set of human behavior studies on the connection between saliency and tracking. We also show that the third prediction holds by constructing a common neurophysiologically plausible architecture that can computationally solve both saliency and tracking.
There are probably always going to be teething issues with new products, and electric vehicles are no exception. According to the results of Consumer Reports' most recent reliability study, owners of recent EV models have flagged some "significant problems," which are thankfully covered under warranty. The survey covered 329,000 vehicles and some EVs -- Audi E-Tron, Kia Niro EV and Tesla Model Y -- "had more than their share of problems," according to Consumer Reports. Some E-Tron owners, for instance, identified drive-system electrical failures and issues with power equipment. Respondents who own the Niro noted other problems, like a bearing in the motor that needed to be replaced.
Lack of reliability is a well-known issue for reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. This problem has gained increasing attention in recent years, and efforts to improve it have grown substantially. To aid RL researchers and production users with the evaluation and improvement of reliability, we propose a set of metrics that quantitatively measure different aspects of reliability. In this work, we focus on variability and risk, both during training and after learning (on a fixed policy). We designed these metrics to be general-purpose, and we also designed complementary statistical tests to enable rigorous comparisons on these metrics. In this paper, we first describe the desired properties of the metrics and their design, the aspects of reliability that they measure, and their applicability to different scenarios. We then describe the statistical tests and make additional practical recommendations for reporting results. The metrics and accompanying statistical tools have been made available as an open-source library, here: https://github.com/google-research/rl-reliability-metrics . We apply our metrics to a set of common RL algorithms and environments, compare them, and analyze the results.
Attention mechanism is effective in both focusing the deep learning models on relevant features and interpreting them. However, attentions may be unreliable since the networks that generate them are often trained in a weakly-supervised manner. To overcome this limitation, we introduce the notion of input-dependent uncertainty to the attention mechanism, such that it generates attention for each feature with varying degrees of noise based on the given input, to learn larger variance on instances it is uncertain about. We learn this Uncertainty-aware Attention (UA) mechanism using variational inference, and validate it on various risk prediction tasks from electronic health records on which our model significantly outperforms existing attention models. The analysis of the learned attentions shows that our model generates attentions that comply with clinicians' interpretation, and provide richer interpretation via learned variance. Further evaluation of both the accuracy of the uncertainty calibration and the prediction performance with "I don't know'' decision show that UA yields networks with high reliability as well.