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Likelihood Ratios for Out-of-Distribution Detection

Neural Information Processing Systems

Discriminative neural networks offer little or no performance guarantees when deployed on data not generated by the same process as the training distribution. On such out-of-distribution (OOD) inputs, the prediction may not only be erroneous, but confidently so, limiting the safe deployment of classifiers in real-world applications. One such challenging application is bacteria identification based on genomic sequences, which holds the promise of early detection of diseases, but requires a model that can output low confidence predictions on OOD genomic sequences from new bacteria that were not present in the training data. We introduce a genomics dataset for OOD detection that allows other researchers to benchmark progress on this important problem. We investigate deep generative model based approaches for OOD detection and observe that the likelihood score is heavily affected by population level background statistics.


Out-of-Distribution Detection using Multiple Semantic Label Representations

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deep Neural Networks are powerful models that attained remarkable results on a variety of tasks. These models are shown to be extremely efficient when training and test data are drawn from the same distribution. However, it is not clear how a network will act when it is fed with an out-of-distribution example. In this work, we consider the problem of out-of-distribution detection in neural networks. We propose to use multiple semantic dense representations instead of sparse representation as the target label. Specifically, we propose to use several word representations obtained from different corpora or architectures as target labels. We evaluated the proposed model on computer vision, and speech commands detection tasks and compared it to previous methods. Results suggest that our method compares favorably with previous work. Besides, we present the efficiency of our approach for detecting wrongly classified and adversarial examples.


Out-of-Distribution Detection using Multiple Semantic Label Representations

Neural Information Processing Systems

Deep Neural Networks are powerful models that attained remarkable results on a variety of tasks. These models are shown to be extremely efficient when training and test data are drawn from the same distribution. However, it is not clear how a network will act when it is fed with an out-of-distribution example. In this work, we consider the problem of out-of-distribution detection in neural networks. We propose to use multiple semantic dense representations instead of sparse representation as the target label. Specifically, we propose to use several word representations obtained from different corpora or architectures as target labels. We evaluated the proposed model on computer vision, and speech commands detection tasks and compared it to previous methods. Results suggest that our method compares favorably with previous work. Besides, we present the efficiency of our approach for detecting wrongly classified and adversarial examples.


Out-of-Distribution Detection using Multiple Semantic Label Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep Neural Networks are powerful models that attained remarkable results on a variety of tasks. These models are shown to be extremely efficient when training and test data are drawn from the same distribution. However, it is not clear how a network will act when it is fed with an out-of-distribution example. In this work, we consider the problem of out-of-distribution detection in neural networks. We propose to use multiple semantic dense representations instead of sparse representation as the target label. Specifically, we propose to use several word representations obtained from different corpora or architectures as target labels. We evaluated the proposed model on computer vision, and speech commands detection tasks and compared it to previous methods. Results suggest that our method compares favorably with previous work. Besides, we present the efficiency of our approach for detecting wrongly classified and adversarial examples.


Improving robustness of classifiers by training against live traffic

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep learning models are known to be overconfident in their predictions on out of distribution inputs. This is a challenge when a model is trained on a particular input dataset, but receives out of sample data when deployed in practice. Recently, there has been work on building classifiers that are robust to out of distribution samples by adding a regularization term that maximizes the entropy of the classifier output on out of distribution data. However, given the challenge that it is not always possible to obtain out of distribution samples, the authors suggest a GAN based alternative that is independent of specific knowledge of out of distribution samples. From this existing work, we also know that having access to the true out of sample distribution for regularization works significantly better than using samples from the GAN. In this paper, we make the following observation: in practice, the out of distribution samples are contained in the traffic that hits a deployed classifier. However, the traffic will also contain a unknown proportion of in-distribution samples. If the entropy over of all of the traffic data were to be naively maximized, this will hurt the classifier performance on in-distribution data. To effectively leverage this traffic data, we propose an adaptive regularization technique (based on the maximum predictive probability score of a sample) which penalizes out of distribution samples more heavily than in distribution samples in the incoming traffic. This ensures that the overall performance of the classifier does not degrade on in-distribution data, while detection of out-of-distribution samples is significantly improved by leveraging the unlabeled traffic data. We show the effectiveness of our method via experiments on natural image datasets.