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Provably Strict Generalisation Benefit for Equivariant Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

It is widely believed that engineering a model to be invariant/equivariant improves generalisation. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, a precise characterisation of the generalisation benefit is lacking. By considering the simplest case of linear models, this paper provides the first provably non-zero improvement in generalisation for invariant/equivariant models when the target distribution is invariant/equivariant with respect to a compact group. Moreover, our work reveals an interesting relationship between generalisation, the number of training examples and properties of the group action. Our results rest on an observation of the structure of function spaces under averaging operators which, along with its consequences for feature averaging, may be of independent interest.


Learning with Algebraic Invariances, and the Invariant Kernel Trick

arXiv.org Machine Learning

When solving data analysis problems it is important to integrate prior knowledge and/or structural invariances. This paper contributes by a novel framework for incorporating algebraic invariance structure into kernels. In particular, we show that algebraic properties such as sign symmetries in data, phase independence, scaling etc. can be included easily by essentially performing the kernel trick twice. We demonstrate the usefulness of our theory in simulations on selected applications such as sign-invariant spectral clustering and underdetermined ICA.


Unitary-Group Invariant Kernels and Features from Transformed Unlabeled Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The study of representations invariant to common transformations of the data is important to learning. Most techniques have focused on local approximate invariance implemented within expensive optimization frameworks lacking explicit theoretical guarantees. In this paper, we study kernels that are invariant to the unitary group while having theoretical guarantees in addressing practical issues such as (1) unavailability of transformed versions of labelled data and (2) not observing all transformations. We present a theoretically motivated alternate approach to the invariant kernel SVM. Unlike previous approaches to the invariant SVM, the proposed formulation solves both issues mentioned. We also present a kernel extension of a recent technique to extract linear unitary-group invariant features addressing both issues and extend some guarantees regarding invariance and stability. We present experiments on the UCI ML datasets to illustrate and validate our methods.


Max-Margin Invariant Features from Transformed Unlabelled Data

Neural Information Processing Systems

The study of representations invariant to common transformations of the data is important to learning. Most techniques have focused on local approximate invariance implemented within expensive optimization frameworks lacking explicit theoretical guarantees. In this paper, we study kernels that are invariant to a unitary group while having theoretical guarantees in addressing the important practical issue of unavailability of transformed versions of labelled data. A problem we call the Unlabeled Transformation Problem which is a special form of semi-supervised learning and one-shot learning. We present a theoretically motivated alternate approach to the invariant kernel SVM based on which we propose Max-Margin Invariant Features (MMIF) to solve this problem. As an illustration, we design an framework for face recognition and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on a large scale semi-synthetic dataset with 153,000 images and a new challenging protocol on Labelled Faces in the Wild (LFW) while out-performing strong baselines.


Probabilistic symmetry and invariant neural networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In an effort to improve the performance of deep neural networks in data-scarce, non-i.i.d., or unsupervised settings, much recent research has been devoted to encoding invariance under symmetry transformations into neural network architectures. We treat the neural network input and output as random variables, and consider group invariance from the perspective of probabilistic symmetry. Drawing on tools from probability and statistics, we establish a link between functional and probabilistic symmetry, and obtain generative functional representations of joint and conditional probability distributions that are invariant or equivariant under the action of a compact group. Those representations completely characterize the structure of neural networks that can be used to model such distributions and yield a general program for constructing invariant stochastic or deterministic neural networks. We develop the details of the general program for exchangeable sequences and arrays, recovering a number of recent examples as special cases.