Exploiting Low-dimensional Structures to Enhance DNN Based Acoustic Modeling in Speech Recognition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose to model the acoustic space of deep neural network (DNN) class-conditional posterior probabilities as a union of low-dimensional subspaces. To that end, the training posteriors are used for dictionary learning and sparse coding. Sparse representation of the test posteriors using this dictionary enables projection to the space of training data. Relying on the fact that the intrinsic dimensions of the posterior subspaces are indeed very small and the matrix of all posteriors belonging to a class has a very low rank, we demonstrate how low-dimensional structures enable further enhancement of the posteriors and rectify the spurious errors due to mismatch conditions. The enhanced acoustic modeling method leads to improvements in continuous speech recognition task using hybrid DNN-HMM (hidden Markov model) framework in both clean and noisy conditions, where upto 15.4% relative reduction in word error rate (WER) is achieved.


Speaker-Invariant Training via Adversarial Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a novel adversarial multi-task learning scheme, aiming at actively curtailing the inter-talker feature variability while maximizing its senone discriminability so as to enhance the performance of a deep neural network (DNN) based ASR system. We call the scheme speaker-invariant training (SIT). In SIT, a DNN acoustic model and a speaker classifier network are jointly optimized to minimize the senone (tied triphone state) classification loss, and simultaneously mini-maximize the speaker classification loss. A speaker-invariant and senone-discriminative deep feature is learned through this adversarial multi-task learning. With SIT, a canonical DNN acoustic model with significantly reduced variance in its output probabilities is learned with no explicit speaker-independent (SI) transformations or speaker-specific representations used in training or testing. Evaluated on the CHiME-3 dataset, the SIT achieves 4.99% relative word error rate (WER) improvement over the conventional SI acoustic model. With additional unsupervised speaker adaptation, the speaker-adapted (SA) SIT model achieves 4.86% relative WER gain over the SA SI acoustic model.


Unsupervised Adaptation with Domain Separation Networks for Robust Speech Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Unsupervised domain adaptation of speech signal aims at adapting a well-trained source-domain acoustic model to the unlabeled data from target domain. This can be achieved by adversarial training of deep neural network (DNN) acoustic models to learn an intermediate deep representation that is both senone-discriminative and domain-invariant. Specifically, the DNN is trained to jointly optimize the primary task of senone classification and the secondary task of domain classification with adversarial objective functions. In this work, instead of only focusing on learning a domain-invariant feature (i.e. the shared component between domains), we also characterize the difference between the source and target domain distributions by explicitly modeling the private component of each domain through a private component extractor DNN. The private component is trained to be orthogonal with the shared component and thus implicitly increases the degree of domain-invariance of the shared component. A reconstructor DNN is used to reconstruct the original speech feature from the private and shared components as a regularization. This domain separation framework is applied to the unsupervised environment adaptation task and achieved 11.08% relative WER reduction from the gradient reversal layer training, a representative adversarial training method, for automatic speech recognition on CHiME-3 dataset.


Adversarial Speaker Adaptation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose a novel adversarial speaker adaptation (ASA) scheme, in which adversarial learning is applied to regularize the distribution of deep hidden features in a speaker-dependent (SD) deep neural network (DNN) acoustic model to be close to that of a fixed speaker-independent (SI) DNN acoustic model during adaptation. An additional discriminator network is introduced to distinguish the deep features generated by the SD model from those produced by the SI model. In ASA, with a fixed SI model as the reference, an SD model is jointly optimized with the discriminator network to minimize the senone classification loss, and simultaneously to mini-maximize the SI/SD discrimination loss on the adaptation data. With ASA, a senone-discriminative deep feature is learned in the SD model with a similar distribution to that of the SI model. With such a regularized and adapted deep feature, the SD model can perform improved automatic speech recognition on the target speaker's speech. Evaluated on the Microsoft short message dictation dataset, ASA achieves 14.4% and 7.9% relative word error rate improvements for supervised and unsupervised adaptation, respectively, over an SI model trained from 2600 hours data, with 200 adaptation utterances per speaker.


Adversarial Feature-Mapping for Speech Enhancement

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Feature-mapping with deep neural networks is commonly used for single-channel speech enhancement, in which a feature-mapping network directly transforms the noisy features to the corresponding enhanced ones and is trained to minimize the mean square errors between the enhanced and clean features. In this paper, we propose an adversarial feature-mapping (AFM) method for speech enhancement which advances the feature-mapping approach with adversarial learning. An additional discriminator network is introduced to distinguish the enhanced features from the real clean ones. The two networks are jointly optimized to minimize the feature-mapping loss and simultaneously mini-maximize the discrimination loss. The distribution of the enhanced features is further pushed towards that of the clean features through this adversarial multi-task training. To achieve better performance on ASR task, senone-aware (SA) AFM is further proposed in which an acoustic model network is jointly trained with the feature-mapping and discriminator networks to optimize the senone classification loss in addition to the AFM losses. Evaluated on the CHiME-3 dataset, the proposed AFM achieves 16.95% and 5.27% relative word error rate (WER) improvements over the real noisy data and the feature-mapping baseline respectively and the SA-AFM achieves 9.85% relative WER improvement over the multi-conditional acoustic model.