Exploiting Low-dimensional Structures to Enhance DNN Based Acoustic Modeling in Speech Recognition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We propose to model the acoustic space of deep neural network (DNN) class-conditional posterior probabilities as a union of low-dimensional subspaces. To that end, the training posteriors are used for dictionary learning and sparse coding. Sparse representation of the test posteriors using this dictionary enables projection to the space of training data. Relying on the fact that the intrinsic dimensions of the posterior subspaces are indeed very small and the matrix of all posteriors belonging to a class has a very low rank, we demonstrate how low-dimensional structures enable further enhancement of the posteriors and rectify the spurious errors due to mismatch conditions. The enhanced acoustic modeling method leads to improvements in continuous speech recognition task using hybrid DNN-HMM (hidden Markov model) framework in both clean and noisy conditions, where upto 15.4% relative reduction in word error rate (WER) is achieved.


Speaker-Invariant Training via Adversarial Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose a novel adversarial multi-task learning scheme, aiming at actively curtailing the inter-talker feature variability while maximizing its senone discriminability so as to enhance the performance of a deep neural network (DNN) based ASR system. We call the scheme speaker-invariant training (SIT). In SIT, a DNN acoustic model and a speaker classifier network are jointly optimized to minimize the senone (tied triphone state) classification loss, and simultaneously mini-maximize the speaker classification loss. A speaker-invariant and senone-discriminative deep feature is learned through this adversarial multi-task learning. With SIT, a canonical DNN acoustic model with significantly reduced variance in its output probabilities is learned with no explicit speaker-independent (SI) transformations or speaker-specific representations used in training or testing. Evaluated on the CHiME-3 dataset, the SIT achieves 4.99% relative word error rate (WER) improvement over the conventional SI acoustic model. With additional unsupervised speaker adaptation, the speaker-adapted (SA) SIT model achieves 4.86% relative WER gain over the SA SI acoustic model.


Adversarial Feature-Mapping for Speech Enhancement

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Feature-mapping with deep neural networks is commonly used for single-channel speech enhancement, in which a feature-mapping network directly transforms the noisy features to the corresponding enhanced ones and is trained to minimize the mean square errors between the enhanced and clean features. In this paper, we propose an adversarial feature-mapping (AFM) method for speech enhancement which advances the feature-mapping approach with adversarial learning. An additional discriminator network is introduced to distinguish the enhanced features from the real clean ones. The two networks are jointly optimized to minimize the feature-mapping loss and simultaneously mini-maximize the discrimination loss. The distribution of the enhanced features is further pushed towards that of the clean features through this adversarial multi-task training. To achieve better performance on ASR task, senone-aware (SA) AFM is further proposed in which an acoustic model network is jointly trained with the feature-mapping and discriminator networks to optimize the senone classification loss in addition to the AFM losses. Evaluated on the CHiME-3 dataset, the proposed AFM achieves 16.95% and 5.27% relative word error rate (WER) improvements over the real noisy data and the feature-mapping baseline respectively and the SA-AFM achieves 9.85% relative WER improvement over the multi-conditional acoustic model.


Unsupervised Domain Adaptation by Adversarial Learning for Robust Speech Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we investigate the use of adversarial learning for unsupervised adaptation to unseen recording conditions, more specifically, single microphone far-field speech. We adapt neural networks based acoustic models trained with close-talk clean speech to the new recording conditions using untranscribed adaptation data. Our experimental results on Italian SPEECON data set show that our proposed method achieves 19.8% relative word error rate (WER) reduction compared to the unadapted models. Furthermore, this adaptation method is beneficial even when performed on data from another language (i.e. French) giving 12.6% relative WER reduction.


The IBM 2016 Speaker Recognition System

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this paper we describe the recent advancements made in the IBM i-vector speaker recognition system for conversational speech. In particular, we identify key techniques that contribute to significant improvements in performance of our system, and quantify their contributions. The techniques include: 1) a nearest-neighbor discriminant analysis (NDA) approach that is formulated to alleviate some of the limitations associated with the conventional linear discriminant analysis (LDA) that assumes Gaussian class-conditional distributions, 2) the application of speaker- and channel-adapted features, which are derived from an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system, for speaker recognition, and 3) the use of a deep neural network (DNN) acoustic model with a large number of output units (~10k senones) to compute the frame-level soft alignments required in the i-vector estimation process. We evaluate these techniques on the NIST 2010 speaker recognition evaluation (SRE) extended core conditions involving telephone and microphone trials. Experimental results indicate that: 1) the NDA is more effective (up to 35% relative improvement in terms of EER) than the traditional parametric LDA for speaker recognition, 2) when compared to raw acoustic features (e.g., MFCCs), the ASR speaker-adapted features provide gains in speaker recognition performance, and 3) increasing the number of output units in the DNN acoustic model (i.e., increasing the senone set size from 2k to 10k) provides consistent improvements in performance (for example from 37% to 57% relative EER gains over our baseline GMM i-vector system). To our knowledge, results reported in this paper represent the best performances published to date on the NIST SRE 2010 extended core tasks.