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### code2seq: Generating Sequences from Structured Representations of Code

The ability to generate natural language sequences from source code snippets can be used for code summarization, documentation, and retrieval. Sequence-to-sequence (seq2seq) models, adopted from neural machine translation (NMT), have achieved state-of-the-art performance on these tasks by treating source code as a sequence of tokens. We present ${\rm {\scriptsize CODE2SEQ}}$: an alternative approach that leverages the syntactic structure of programming languages to better encode source code. Our model represents a code snippet as the set of paths in its abstract syntax tree (AST) and uses attention to select the relevant paths during decoding, much like contemporary NMT models. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach for two tasks, two programming languages, and four datasets of up to 16M examples. Our model significantly outperforms previous models that were specifically designed for programming languages, as well as general state-of-the-art NMT models.

### Natural Language Processing Advancements By Deep Learning: A Survey

Natural Language Processing (NLP) helps empower intelligent machines by enhancing a better understanding of the human language for linguistic-based human-computer communication. Recent developments in computational power and the advent of large amounts of linguistic data have heightened the need and demand for automating semantic analysis using data-driven approaches. The utilization of data-driven strategies is pervasive now due to the significant improvements demonstrated through the usage of deep learning methods in areas such as Computer Vision, Automatic Speech Recognition, and in particular, NLP. This survey categorizes and addresses the different aspects and applications of NLP that have benefited from deep learning. It covers core NLP tasks and applications and describes how deep learning methods and models advance these areas. We further analyze and compare different approaches and state-of-the-art models.

### A Survey on Contextual Embeddings

Contextual embeddings, such as ELMo and BERT, move beyond global word representations like Word2Vec and achieve ground-breaking performance on a wide range of natural language processing tasks. Contextual embeddings assign each word a representation based on its context, thereby capturing uses of words across varied contexts and encoding knowledge that transfers across languages. In this survey, we review existing contextual embedding models, cross-lingual polyglot pre-training, the application of contextual embeddings in downstream tasks, model compression, and model analyses.

### code2vec: Learning Distributed Representations of Code

We present a neural model for representing snippets of code as continuous distributed vectors. The main idea is to represent code as a collection of paths in its abstract syntax tree, and aggregate these paths, in a smart and scalable way, into a single fixed-length \emph{code vector}, which can be used to predict semantic properties of the snippet. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by using it to predict a method's name from the vector representation of its body. We evaluate our approach by training a model on a dataset of $14$M methods. We show that code vectors trained on this dataset can predict method names from files that were completely unobserved during training. Furthermore, we show that our model learns useful method name vectors that capture semantic similarities, combinations, and analogies. Comparing previous techniques over the same data set, our approach obtains a relative improvement of over $75\%$, being the first to successfully predict method names based on a large, cross-project, corpus.

### Tree-to-tree Neural Networks for Program Translation

Program translation is an important tool to migrate legacy code in one language into an ecosystem built in a different language. In this work, we are the first to employ deep neural networks toward tackling this problem. We observe that program translation is a modular procedure, in which a sub-tree of the source tree is translated into the corresponding target sub-tree at each step. To capture this intuition, we design a tree-to-tree neural network to translate a source tree into a target one. Meanwhile, we develop an attention mechanism for the tree-to-tree model, so that when the decoder expands one non-terminal in the target tree, the attention mechanism locates the corresponding sub-tree in the source tree to guide the expansion of the decoder. We evaluate the program translation capability of our tree-to-tree model against several state-of-the-art approaches. Compared against other neural translation models, we observe that our approach is consistently better than the baselines with a margin of up to 15 points. Further, our approach can improve the previous state-of-the-art program translation approaches by a margin of 20 points on the translation of real-world projects.