Structured knowledge about concepts plays an increasingly important role in areas such as information retrieval. The available ontologies and knowledge graphs that encode such conceptual knowledge, however, are inevitably incomplete. This observation has led to a number of methods that aim to automatically complete existing knowledge bases. Unfortunately, most existing approaches rely on black box models, e.g. formulated as global optimization problems, which makes it difficult to support the underlying reasoning process with intuitive explanations. In this paper, we propose a new method for knowledge base completion, which uses interpretable conceptual space representations and an explicit model for inductive inference that is closer to human forms of commonsense reasoning. Moreover, by separating the task of representation learning from inductive reasoning, our method is easier to apply in a wider variety of contexts. Finally, unlike optimization based approaches, our method can naturally be applied in settings where various logical constraints between the extensions of concepts need to be taken into account.
Although the notion of a concept as a collection of objects sharing certain properties, and the notion of a conceptual hierarchy are fundamental to both Formal Concept Analysis and Description Logics, the ways concepts are described and obtained differ significantly between these two research areas. Despite these differences, there have been several attempts to bridge the gap between these two formalisms, and attempts to apply methods from one field in the other. The present work aims to give an overview on the research done in combining Description Logics and Formal Concept Analysis.
We define a modular multi-concept extension of the lexicographic closure semantics for defeasible description logics with typicality. The idea is that of distributing the defeasible properties of concepts into different modules, according to their subject, and of defining a notion of preference for each module based on the lexicographic closure semantics. The preferential semantics of the knowledge base can then be defined as a combination of the preferences of the single modules. The range of possibilities, from fine grained to coarse grained modules, provides a spectrum of alternative semantics.
In this work we describe preferential Description Logics of typicality, a nonmonotonic extension of standard Description Logics by means of a typicality operator T allowing to extend a knowledge base with inclusions of the form T(C) D, whose intuitive meaning is that "normally/typically Cs are also Ds". This extension is based on a minimal model semantics corresponding to a notion of rational closure, built upon preferential models. We recall the basic concepts underlying preferential Description Logics. We also present two extensions of the preferential semantics: on the one hand, we consider probabilistic extensions, based on a distributed semantics that is suitable for tackling the problem of commonsense concept combination, on the other hand, we consider other strengthening of the rational closure semantics and construction to avoid the so called "blocking of property inheritance problem".
We propose a family of probabilistic description logics (DLs) that are derived in a principled way from Halpern's probabilistic first-order logic. The resulting probabilistic DLs have a two-dimensional semantics similar to temporal DLs and are well-suited for representing subjective probabilities. We carry out a detailed study of reasoning in the new family of logics, concentrating on probabilistic extensions of the DLs ALC and EL, and showing that the complexity ranges from PTime via ExpTime and 2ExpTime to undecidable.