Humans learn to play video games significantly faster than state-of-the-art reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms. Inspired by this, we introduce strategic object oriented reinforcement learning (SOORL) to learn simple dynamics model through automatic model selection and perform efficient planning with strategic exploration. We compare different exploration strategies in a model-based setting in which exact planning is impossible. Additionally, we test our approach on perhaps the hardest Atari game Pitfall! and achieve significantly improved exploration and performance over prior methods.
Abstract-- Deep reinforcement learning suggests the promise of fully automated learning of robotic control policies that directly map sensory inputs to low-level actions. However, applying deep reinforcement learning methods on real-world robots is exceptionally difficult, due both to the sample complexity and,just as importantly, the sensitivity of such methods to hyperparameters. While hyperparameter tuning can be performed in parallel in simulated domains, it is usually impractical to tune hyperparameters directly on real-world robotic platforms, especially legged platforms like quadrupedal robots that can be damaged through extensive trial-and-error learning. In this paper, we develop a stable variant of the soft actor-critic deep reinforcement learning algorithm that requires minimal hyperparameter tuning, while also requiring only a modest number of trials to learn multilayer neural network policies. This algorithm is based on the framework of maximum entropy reinforcement learning, and automatically trades off exploration against exploitation by dynamically and automatically tuning a temperature parameter that determines the stochasticity of the policy. We show that this method achieves state-of-the-art performance on four standard benchmark environments.We then demonstrate that it can be used to learn quadrupedal locomotion gaits on a real-world Minitaur robot, learning to walk from scratch directly in the real world in two hours of training. I. INTRODUCTION Deep reinforcement learning can be used to automate the acquisition of controllers for a range of robotic tasks, enabling end-to-end learning of policies that map sensory inputs to lowlevel actions.This can be particularly appealing in the domain of robotic locomotion, where manual gait design can be difficult and highly robot-specific.
Model-free deep reinforcement learning has been shown to exhibit good performance in domains ranging from video games to simulated robotic manipulation and locomotion. However, model-free methods are known to perform poorly when the interaction time with the environment is limited, as is the case for most real-world robotic tasks. In this paper, we study how maximum entropy policies trained using soft Q-learning can be applied to real-world robotic manipulation. The application of this method to real-world manipulation is facilitated by two important features of soft Q-learning. First, soft Q-learning can learn multimodal exploration strategies by learning policies represented by expressive energy-based models. Second, we show that policies learned with soft Q-learning can be composed to create new policies, and that the optimality of the resulting policy can be bounded in terms of the divergence between the composed policies. This compositionality provides an especially valuable tool for real-world manipulation, where constructing new policies by composing existing skills can provide a large gain in efficiency over training from scratch. Our experimental evaluation demonstrates that soft Q-learning is substantially more sample efficient than prior model-free deep reinforcement learning methods, and that compositionality can be performed for both simulated and real-world tasks.
Imitation learning algorithms can be used to learn a policy from expert demonstrations without access to a reward signal. However, most existing approaches are not applicable in multi-agent settings due to the existence of multiple (Nash) equilibria and non-stationary environments. We propose a new framework for multi-agent imitation learning for general Markov games, where we build upon a generalized notion of inverse reinforcement learning. We further introduce a practical multi-agent actor-critic algorithm with good empirical performance. Our method can be used to imitate complex behaviors in high-dimensional environments with multiple cooperative or competing agents.