In 1985, a twenty-two year old Garry Kasparov became the youngest World Chess Champion. Twelve years later, he was defeated by the only player capable of challenging the grandmaster, IBM's Deep Blue. That same year (1997), RoboCup was formed to take on the world's most popular game, soccer, with robots. Twenty years later, we are on the threshold of the accomplishing the biggest feat in machine intelligence, a team of fully autonomous humanoids beating human players at FIFA World Cup soccer. Many of the advances that have led to the influx of modern autonomous vehicles and machine intelligence are the result of decades of competitions.