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Quantifying Notes Revisited

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To a multi-agent logic of knowledge or belief we can add public announcements to model publicly observed information change, or action models to model information change that is differently observed by different agents, but also modalities representing quantification over such information change, such as quantifiers over announcements or quantifiers over actions models. Such additions may result in more complex or undecidable logics, and create a very open landscape of relative expressivity. The survey [88] of such logics focused on open problems. Some such open problems have since then been resolved, and yet others have come to the fore. In this updated survey we review what is known about such logics with quantification over information change, including digressions into what are known as relation changing modal(but often not epistemic) logics. Again we focus on open problems.


Interactive Robot Training for Non-Markov Tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Defining sound and complete specifications for robots using formal languages is challenging, while learning formal specifications directly from demonstrations can lead to over-constrained task policies. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian interactive robot training framework that allows the robot to learn from both demonstrations provided by a teacher, and that teacher's assessments of the robot's task executions. We also present an active learning approach -- inspired by uncertainty sampling -- to identify the task execution with the most uncertain degree of acceptability. We demonstrate that active learning within our framework identifies a teacher's intended task specification to a greater degree of similarity when compared with an approach that learns purely from demonstrations. Finally, we also conduct a user-study that demonstrates the efficacy of our active learning framework in learning a table-setting task from a human teacher.


Agent-Based Proof Design via Lemma Flow Diagram

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We discuss an agent-based approach to proof design and implementation, which we call {\it Lemma Flow Diagram} (LFD). This approach is based on the multicut rule with $shared$ cuts. This approach is modular and easy to use, read and automate. Thus, we consider LFD an appealing alternative to `flow proof' which is popular in mathematical education. Some examples are provided.


Implementations in Machine Ethics: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Increasingly complex and autonomous systems require machine ethics to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks to society arising from the new technology. It is challenging to decide which type of ethical theory to employ and how to implement it effectively. This survey provides a threefold contribution. Firstly, it introduces a taxonomy to analyze the field of machine ethics from an ethical, implementational, and technical perspective. Secondly, an exhaustive selection and description of relevant works is presented. Thirdly, applying the new taxonomy to the selected works, dominant research patterns and lessons for the field are identified, and future directions for research are suggested.


Intelligence, physics and information -- the tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity in machine learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

How can we enable machines to make sense of the world, and become better at learning? To approach this goal, I believe viewing intelligence in terms of many integral aspects, and also a universal two-term tradeoff between task performance and complexity, provides two feasible perspectives. In this thesis, I address several key questions in some aspects of intelligence, and study the phase transitions in the two-term tradeoff, using strategies and tools from physics and information. Firstly, how can we make the learning models more flexible and efficient, so that agents can learn quickly with fewer examples? Inspired by how physicists model the world, we introduce a paradigm and an AI Physicist agent for simultaneously learning many small specialized models (theories) and the domain they are accurate, which can then be simplified, unified and stored, facilitating few-shot learning in a continual way. Secondly, for representation learning, when can we learn a good representation, and how does learning depend on the structure of the dataset? We approach this question by studying phase transitions when tuning the tradeoff hyperparameter. In the information bottleneck, we theoretically show that these phase transitions are predictable and reveal structure in the relationships between the data, the model, the learned representation and the loss landscape. Thirdly, how can agents discover causality from observations? We address part of this question by introducing an algorithm that combines prediction and minimizing information from the input, for exploratory causal discovery from observational time series. Fourthly, to make models more robust to label noise, we introduce Rank Pruning, a robust algorithm for classification with noisy labels. I believe that building on the work of my thesis we will be one step closer to enable more intelligent machines that can make sense of the world.


On Quantified Modal Theorem Proving for Modeling Ethics

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Second International Workshop on Automated Reasoning: Challenges, Applications, Directions, Exemplary Achievements (ARCADE 2019) EPTCS 311, 2019, pp. In the last decade, formal logics have been used to model a wide range of ethical theories and principles with the goal of using these models within autonomous systems. Logics for modeling ethical theories, and their automated reasoners, have requirements that are different from modal logics used for other purposes, e.g. for temporal reasoning. Particularly, a quantified modal logic, the deontic cognitive event calculus (DC E C), has been used to model various versions of the doctrine of double effect, akrasia, and virtue ethics. Using a fragment of DC E C, we outline these distinct characteristics and present a sketches of an algorithm that can help with some aspects proof automation forDC E C . 1 Introduction Modal logics have been used for decades to model and study a diverse set of subjects -- e.g.


A Paraconsistent ASP-like Language with Tractable Model Generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Answer Set Programming (ASP) is nowadays a dominant rule-based knowledge representation tool. Though existing ASP variants enjoy efficient implementations, generating an answer set remains intractable. The goal of this research is to define a new \asp-like rule language, 4SP, with tractable model generation. The language combines ideas of ASP and a paraconsistent rule language 4QL. Though 4SP shares the syntax of \asp and for each program all its answer sets are among 4SP models, the new language differs from ASP in its logical foundations, the intended methodology of its use and complexity of computing models. As we show in the paper, 4QL can be seen as a paraconsistent counterpart of ASP programs stratified with respect to default negation. Although model generation of well-supported models for 4QL programs is tractable, dropping stratification makes both 4QL and ASP intractable. To retain tractability while allowing non-stratified programs, in 4SP we introduce trial expressions interlacing programs with hypotheses as to the truth values of default negations. This allows us to develop a~model generation algorithm with deterministic polynomial time complexity. We also show relationships among 4SP, ASP and 4QL.


Formal Verification of Debates in Argumentation Theory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans engage in informal debates on a daily basis. By expressing their opinions and ideas in an argumentative fashion, they are able to gain a deeper understanding of a given problem and in some cases, find the best possible course of actions towards resolving it. In this paper, we develop a methodology to verify debates formalised as abstract argumentation frameworks. We first present a translation from debates to transition systems. Such transition systems can model debates and represent their evolution over time using a finite set of states. We then formalise relevant debate properties using temporal and strategy logics. These formalisations, along with a debate transition system, allow us to verify whether a given debate satisfies certain properties. The verification process can be automated using model checkers. Therefore, we also measure their performance when verifying debates, and use the results to discuss the feasibility of model checking debates.


An Action Language for Multi-Agent Domains: Foundations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In multi-agent domains (MADs), an agent's action may not just change the world and the agent's knowledge and beliefs about the world, but also may change other agents' knowledge and beliefs about the world and their knowledge and beliefs about other agents' knowledge and beliefs about the world. The goals of an agent in a multi-agent world may involve manipulating the knowledge and beliefs of other agents' and again, not just their knowledge/belief about the world, but also their knowledge about other agents' knowledge about the world. Our goal is to present an action language (mA+) that has the necessary features to address the above aspects in representing and RAC in MADs. mA+ allows the representation of and reasoning about different types of actions that an agent can perform in a domain where many other agents might be present -- such as world-altering actions, sensing actions, and announcement/communication actions. It also allows the specification of agents' dynamic awareness of action occurrences which has future implications on what agents' know about the world and other agents' knowledge about the world. mA+ considers three different types of awareness: full-, partial- awareness, and complete oblivion of an action occurrence and its effects. This keeps the language simple, yet powerful enough to address a large variety of knowledge manipulation scenarios in MADs. The semantics of mA+ relies on the notion of state, which is described by a pointed Kripke model and is used to encode the agent's knowledge and the real state of the world. It is defined by a transition function that maps pairs of actions and states into sets of states. We illustrate properties of the action theories, including properties that guarantee finiteness of the set of initial states and their practical implementability. Finally, we relate mA+ to other related formalisms that contribute to RAC in MADs.


Ethical Dilemmas of Strategic Coalitions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A coalition of agents, or a single agent, has an ethical dilemma between several statements if each joint action of the coalition forces at least one specific statement among them to be true. For example, any action in the trolley dilemma forces one specific group of people to die. In many cases, agents face ethical dilemmas because they are restricted in the amount of the resources they are ready to sacrifice to overcome the dilemma. The paper presents a sound and complete modal logical system that describes properties of dilemmas for a given limit on a sacrifice.