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Survey on Evaluation Methods for Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper we survey the methods and concepts developed for the evaluation of dialogue systems. Evaluation is a crucial part during the development process. Often, dialogue systems are evaluated by means of human evaluations and questionnaires. However, this tends to be very cost and time intensive. Thus, much work has been put into finding methods, which allow to reduce the involvement of human labour. In this survey, we present the main concepts and methods. For this, we differentiate between the various classes of dialogue systems (task-oriented dialogue systems, conversational dialogue systems, and question-answering dialogue systems). We cover each class by introducing the main technologies developed for the dialogue systems and then by presenting the evaluation methods regarding this class.


Symbol Emergence in Cognitive Developmental Systems: a Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans use signs, e.g., sentences in a spoken language, for communication and thought. Hence, symbol systems like language are crucial for our communication with other agents and adaptation to our real-world environment. The symbol systems we use in our human society adaptively and dynamically change over time. In the context of artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive systems, the symbol grounding problem has been regarded as one of the central problems related to {\it symbols}. However, the symbol grounding problem was originally posed to connect symbolic AI and sensorimotor information and did not consider many interdisciplinary phenomena in human communication and dynamic symbol systems in our society, which semiotics considered. In this paper, we focus on the symbol emergence problem, addressing not only cognitive dynamics but also the dynamics of symbol systems in society, rather than the symbol grounding problem. We first introduce the notion of a symbol in semiotics from the humanities, to leave the very narrow idea of symbols in symbolic AI. Furthermore, over the years, it became more and more clear that symbol emergence has to be regarded as a multifaceted problem. Therefore, secondly, we review the history of the symbol emergence problem in different fields, including both biological and artificial systems, showing their mutual relations. We summarize the discussion and provide an integrative viewpoint and comprehensive overview of symbol emergence in cognitive systems. Additionally, we describe the challenges facing the creation of cognitive systems that can be part of symbol emergence systems.


Cross-domain Dialogue Policy Transfer via Simultaneous Speech-act and Slot Alignment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Dialogue policy transfer enables us to build dialogue policies in a target domain with little data by leveraging knowledge from a source domain with plenty of data. Dialogue sentences are usually represented by speech-acts and domain slots, and the dialogue policy transfer is usually achieved by assigning a slot mapping matrix based on human heuristics. However, existing dialogue policy transfer methods cannot transfer across dialogue domains with different speech-acts, for example, between systems built by different companies. Also, they depend on either common slots or slot entropy, which are not available when the source and target slots are totally disjoint and no database is available to calculate the slot entropy. To solve this problem, we propose a Policy tRansfer across dOMaIns and SpEech-acts (PROMISE) model, which is able to transfer dialogue policies across domains with different speech-acts and disjoint slots. The PROMISE model can learn to align different speech-acts and slots simultaneously, and it does not require common slots or the calculation of the slot entropy. Experiments on both real-world dialogue data and simulations demonstrate that PROMISE model can effectively transfer dialogue policies across domains with different speech-acts and disjoint slots.


A Survey of Available Corpora for Building Data-Driven Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

During the past decade, several areas of speech and language understanding have witnessed substantial breakthroughs from the use of data-driven models. In the area of dialogue systems, the trend is less obvious, and most practical systems are still built through significant engineering and expert knowledge. Nevertheless, several recent results suggest that data-driven approaches are feasible and quite promising. To facilitate research in this area, we have carried out a wide survey of publicly available datasets suitable for data-driven learning of dialogue systems. We discuss important characteristics of these datasets, how they can be used to learn diverse dialogue strategies, and their other potential uses. We also examine methods for transfer learning between datasets and the use of external knowledge. Finally, we discuss appropriate choice of evaluation metrics for the learning objective.