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Enriching Consumer Health Vocabulary Using Enhanced GloVe Word Embedding

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Open-Access and Collaborative Consumer Health Vocabulary (OAC CHV, or CHV for short), is a collection of medical terms written in plain English. It provides a list of simple, easy, and clear terms that laymen prefer to use rather than an equivalent professional medical term. The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has integrated and mapped the CHV terms to their Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). These CHV terms mapped to 56000 professional concepts on the UMLS. We found that about 48% of these laymen's terms are still jargon and matched with the professional terms on the UMLS. In this paper, we present an enhanced word embedding technique that generates new CHV terms from a consumer-generated text. We downloaded our corpus from a healthcare social media and evaluated our new method based on iterative feedback to word embeddings using ground truth built from the existing CHV terms. Our feedback algorithm outperformed unmodified GLoVe and new CHV terms have been detected.


Foundations of Explainable Knowledge-Enabled Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Explainability has been an important goal since the early days of Artificial Intelligence. Several approaches for producing explanations have been developed. However, many of these approaches were tightly coupled with the capabilities of the artificial intelligence systems at the time. With the proliferation of AI-enabled systems in sometimes critical settings, there is a need for them to be explainable to end-users and decision-makers. We present a historical overview of explainable artificial intelligence systems, with a focus on knowledge-enabled systems, spanning the expert systems, cognitive assistants, semantic applications, and machine learning domains. Additionally, borrowing from the strengths of past approaches and identifying gaps needed to make explanations user- and context-focused, we propose new definitions for explanations and explainable knowledge-enabled systems.


The Tensor Brain: Semantic Decoding for Perception and Memory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We analyse perception and memory using mathematical models for knowledge graphs and tensors to gain insights in the corresponding functionalities of the human mind. Our discussion is based on the concept of propositional sentences consisting of \textit{subject-predicate-object} (SPO) triples for expressing elementary facts. SPO sentences are the basis for most natural languages but might also be important for explicit perception and declarative memories, as well as intra-brain communication and the ability to argue and reason. A set of SPO sentences can be described as a knowledge graph, which can be transformed into an adjacency tensor. We introduce tensor models, where concepts have dual representations as indices and associated embeddings, two constructs we believe are essential for the understanding of implicit and explicit perception and memory in the brain. We argue that a biological realization of perception and memory imposes constraints on information processing. In particular, we propose that explicit perception and declarative memories require a semantic decoder, which, in a simple realization, is based on four layers: First, a sensory memory layer, as a buffer for sensory input, second, an index layer representing concepts, third, a memoryless representation layer for the broadcasting of information and fourth, a working memory layer as a processing center and data buffer. In a Bayesian brain interpretation, semantic memory defines the prior for triple statements. We propose that, in evolution and during development, semantic memory, episodic memory and natural language evolved as emergent properties in the agents' process to gain deeper understanding of sensory information. We present a concrete model realization and validate some aspects of our proposed model on benchmark data where we demonstrate state-of-the-art performance.


Knowledge-based Biomedical Data Science 2019

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Knowledge-based biomedical data science (KBDS) involves the design and implementation of computer systems that act as if they knew about biomedicine. Such systems depend on formally represented knowledge in computer systems, often in the form of knowledge graphs. Here we survey the progress in the last year in systems that use formally represented knowledge to address data science problems in both clinical and biological domains, as well as on approaches for creating knowledge graphs. Major themes include the relationships between knowledge graphs and machine learning, the use of natural language processing, and the expansion of knowledge-based approaches to novel domains, such as Chinese Traditional Medicine and biodiversity.


A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.



Population Health Record: An Informatics Infrastructure for Management, Integration, and Analysis of Large Scale Population Health Data

AAAI Conferences

Practitioners and researchers in health services and public health routinely estimate population health indicators from a range of data sources. These indicators are used in many settings to describe health status, monitor quality of care, and evaluate the effect of interventions. The data and knowledge necessary to calculate indicators, however, are scattered across different health settings, resulting in inconsistent and fragmented indicators and an inefficient use of population health information in research and practice. The Population Health Record (PopHR) described in this paper is an informatics platform for semi-automated integration of disparate data to enable measurement and monitoring of population health status and determinants. The research and development to build the PopHR uses AI methods to perform many tasks, including calculation of indicators and interaction with users.