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Vocabulary Alignment in Openly Specified Interactions

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

The problem of achieving common understanding between agents that use different vocabularies has been mainly addressed by techniques that assume the existence of shared external elements, such as a meta-language or a physical environment. In this article, we consider agents that use different vocabularies and only share knowledge of how to perform a task, given by the specification of an interaction protocol. We present a framework that lets agents learn a vocabulary alignment from the experience of interacting. Unlike previous work in this direction, we use open protocols that constrain possible actions instead of defining procedures, making our approach more general. We present two techniques that can be used either to learn an alignment from scratch or to repair an existent one, and we evaluate their performance experimentally.


Symmetry as an Organizing Principle for Geometric Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The exploration of geometrical patterns stimulates imagination and encourages abstract reasoning which is a distinctive feature of human intelligence. In cognitive science, Gestalt principles such as symmetry have often explained significant aspects of human perception. We present a computational technique for building artificial intelligence (AI) agents that use symmetry as the organizing principle for addressing Dehaene's test of geometric intelligence \cite{dehaene2006core}. The performance of our model is on par with extant AI models of problem solving on the Dehaene's test and seems correlated with some elements of human behavior on the same test.


Planning in Stochastic Environments with Goal Uncertainty

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present the Goal Uncertain Stochastic Shortest Path (GUSSP) problem -- a general framework to model path planning and decision making in stochastic environments with goal uncertainty. The framework extends the stochastic shortest path (SSP) model to dynamic environments in which it is impossible to determine the exact goal states ahead of plan execution. GUSSPs introduce flexibility in goal specification by allowing a belief over possible goal configurations. The unique observations at potential goals helps the agent identify the true goal during plan execution. The partial observability is restricted to goals, facilitating the reduction to an SSP with a modified state space. We formally define a GUSSP and discuss its theoretical properties. We then propose an admissible heuristic that reduces the planning time using FLARES -- a start-of-the-art probabilistic planner. We also propose a determinization approach for solving this class of problems. Finally, we present empirical results on a search and rescue mobile robot and three other problem domains in simulation.


Improving Confidence in the Estimation of Values and Norms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Autonomous agents (AA) will increasingly be interacting with us in our daily lives. While we want the benefits attached to AAs, it is essential that their behavior is aligned with our values and norms. Hence, an AA will need to estimate the values and norms of the humans it interacts with, which is not a straightforward task when solely observing an agent's behavior. This paper analyses to what extent an AA is able to estimate the values and norms of a simulated human agent (SHA) based on its actions in the ultimatum game. We present two methods to reduce ambiguity in profiling the SHAs: one based on search space exploration and another based on counterfactual analysis. We found that both methods are able to increase the confidence in estimating human values and norms, but differ in their applicability, the latter being more efficient when the number of interactions with the agent is to be minimized. These insights are useful to improve the alignment of AAs with human values and norms.


Directions for Explainable Knowledge-Enabled Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Interest in the field of Explainable Artificial Intelligence has been growing for decades, and has accelerated recently. As Artificial Intelligence models have become more complex, and often more opaque, with the incorporation of complex machine learning techniques, explainability has become more critical. Recently, researchers have been investigating and tackling explainability with a user-centric focus, looking for explanations to consider trustworthiness, comprehensibility, explicit provenance, and context-awareness. In this chapter, we leverage our survey of explanation literature in Artificial Intelligence and closely related fields and use these past efforts to generate a set of explanation types that we feel reflect the expanded needs of explanation for today's artificial intelligence applications. We define each type and provide an example question that would motivate the need for this style of explanation. We believe this set of explanation types will help future system designers in their generation and prioritization of requirements and further help generate explanations that are better aligned to users' and situational needs.


Generating Emotionally Aligned Responses in Dialogues using Affect Control Theory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

State-of-the-art neural dialogue systems excel at syntactic and semantic modelling of language, but often have a hard time establishing emotional alignment with the human interactant during a conversation. In this work, we bring Affect Control Theory (ACT), a socio-mathematical model of emotions for human-human interactions, to the neural dialogue generation setting. ACT makes predictions about how humans respond to emotional stimuli in social situations. Due to this property, ACT and its derivative probabilistic models have been successfully deployed in several applications of Human-Computer Interaction, including empathetic tutoring systems, assistive healthcare devices and two-person social dilemma games. We investigate how ACT can be used to develop affect-aware conversational agents, which produce emotionally aligned responses to prompts and take into consideration the affective identities of the interactants.


Path Planning Using Probability Tensor Flows

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Probability models have been proposed in the literature to account for "intelligent" behavior in many contexts. In this paper, probability propagation is applied to model agent's motion in potentially complex scenarios that include goals and obstacles. The backward flow provides precious background information to the agent's behavior, viz., inferences coming from the future determine the agent's actions. Probability tensors are layered in time in both directions in a manner similar to convolutional neural networks. The discussion is carried out with reference to a set of simulated grids where, despite the apparent task complexity, a solution, if feasible, is always found. The original model proposed by Attias has been extended to include non-absorbing obstacles, multiple goals and multiple agents. The emerging behaviors are very realistic and demonstrate great potentials of the application of this framework to real environments.


Emergent Communication with World Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce Language World Models, a class of language-conditional generative model which interpret natural language messages by predicting latent codes of future observations. This provides a visual grounding of the message, similar to an enhanced observation of the world, which may include objects outside of the listening agent's field-of-view. We incorporate this "observation" into a persistent memory state, and allow the listening agent's policy to condition on it, akin to the relationship between memory and controller in a World Model. We show this improves effective communication and task success in 2D gridworld speaker-listener navigation tasks. In addition, we develop two losses framed specifically for our model-based formulation to promote positive signalling and positive listening. Finally, because messages are interpreted in a generative model, we can visualize the model beliefs to gain insight into how the communication channel is utilized.


A multi-agent control framework for co-adaptation in brain-computer interfaces

Neural Information Processing Systems

In a closed-loop brain-computer interface (BCI), adaptive decoders are used to learn parameters suited to decoding the user's neural response. Feedback to the user provides information which permits the neural tuning to also adapt. We present an approach to model this process of co-adaptation between the encoding model of the neural signal and the decoding algorithm as a multi-agent formulation of the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control problem. In simulation we characterize how decoding performance improves as the neural encoding and adaptive decoder optimize, qualitatively resembling experimentally demonstrated closed-loop improvement. We then propose a novel, modified decoder update rule which is aware of the fact that the encoder is also changing and show it can improve simulated co-adaptation dynamics.


From Data to Actions in Intelligent Transportation Systems: a Prescription of Functional Requirements for Model Actionability

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Advances in Data Science are lately permeating every field of Transportation Science and Engineering, making it straightforward to imagine that developments in the transportation sector will be data-driven. Nowadays, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) could be arguably approached as a "story" intensively producing and consuming large amounts of data. A diversity of sensing devices densely spread over the infrastructure, vehicles or the travelers' personal devices act as sources of data flows that are eventually fed to software running on automatic devices, actuators or control systems producing, in turn, complex information flows between users, traffic managers, data analysts, traffic modeling scientists, etc. These information flows provide enormous opportunities to improve model development and decision-making. The present work aims to describe how data, coming from diverse ITS sources, can be used to learn and adapt data-driven models for efficiently operating ITS assets, systems and processes; in other words, for data-based models to fully become actionable. Grounded on this described data modeling pipeline for ITS, we define the characteristics, engineering requisites and challenges intrinsic to its three compounding stages, namely, data fusion, adaptive learning and model evaluation. We deliberately generalize model learning to be adaptive, since, in the core of our paper is the firm conviction that most learners will have to adapt to the everchanging phenomenon scenario underlying the majority of ITS applications. Finally, we provide a prospect of current research lines within the Data Science realm that can bring notable advances to data-based ITS modeling, which will eventually bridge the gap towards the practicality and actionability of such models.