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A review of machine learning applications in wildfire science and management

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Artificial intelligence has been applied in wildfire science and management since the 1990s, with early applications including neural networks and expert systems. Since then the field has rapidly progressed congruently with the wide adoption of machine learning (ML) in the environmental sciences. Here, we present a scoping review of ML in wildfire science and management. Our objective is to improve awareness of ML among wildfire scientists and managers, as well as illustrate the challenging range of problems in wildfire science available to data scientists. We first present an overview of popular ML approaches used in wildfire science to date, and then review their use in wildfire science within six problem domains: 1) fuels characterization, fire detection, and mapping; 2) fire weather and climate change; 3) fire occurrence, susceptibility, and risk; 4) fire behavior prediction; 5) fire effects; and 6) fire management. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of various ML approaches and identify opportunities for future advances in wildfire science and management within a data science context. We identified 298 relevant publications, where the most frequently used ML methods included random forests, MaxEnt, artificial neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines, and genetic algorithms. There exists opportunities to apply more current ML methods (e.g., deep learning and agent based learning) in wildfire science. However, despite the ability of ML models to learn on their own, expertise in wildfire science is necessary to ensure realistic modelling of fire processes across multiple scales, while the complexity of some ML methods requires sophisticated knowledge for their application. Finally, we stress that the wildfire research and management community plays an active role in providing relevant, high quality data for use by practitioners of ML methods.


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


On the Morality of Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Much of the existing research on the social and ethical impact of Artificial Intelligence has been focused on defining ethical principles and guidelines surrounding Machine Learning (ML) and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms [IEEE, 2017, Jobin et al., 2019]. While this is extremely useful for helping define the appropriate social norms of AI, we believe that it is equally important to discuss both the potential and risks of ML and to inspire the community to use ML for beneficial objectives. In the present article, which is specifically aimed at ML practitioners, we thus focus more on the latter, carrying out an overview of existing high-level ethical frameworks and guidelines, but above all proposing both conceptual and practical principles and guidelines for ML research and deployment, insisting on concrete actions that can be taken by practitioners to pursue a more ethical and moral practice of ML aimed at using AI for social good.


A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.


Tackling Climate Change with Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing humanity, and we, as machine learning experts, may wonder how we can help. Here we describe how machine learning can be a powerful tool in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and helping society adapt to a changing climate. From smart grids to disaster management, we identify high impact problems where existing gaps can be filled by machine learning, in collaboration with other fields. Our recommendations encompass exciting research questions as well as promising business opportunities. We call on the machine learning community to join the global effort against climate change.


Big Data Meet Cyber-Physical Systems: A Panoramic Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The world is witnessing an unprecedented growth of cyber-physical systems (CPS), which are foreseen to revolutionize our world {via} creating new services and applications in a variety of sectors such as environmental monitoring, mobile-health systems, intelligent transportation systems and so on. The {information and communication technology }(ICT) sector is experiencing a significant growth in { data} traffic, driven by the widespread usage of smartphones, tablets and video streaming, along with the significant growth of sensors deployments that are anticipated in the near future. {It} is expected to outstandingly increase the growth rate of raw sensed data. In this paper, we present the CPS taxonomy {via} providing a broad overview of data collection, storage, access, processing and analysis. Compared with other survey papers, this is the first panoramic survey on big data for CPS, where our objective is to provide a panoramic summary of different CPS aspects. Furthermore, CPS {require} cybersecurity to protect {them} against malicious attacks and unauthorized intrusion, which {become} a challenge with the enormous amount of data that is continuously being generated in the network. {Thus, we also} provide an overview of the different security solutions proposed for CPS big data storage, access and analytics. We also discuss big data meeting green challenges in the contexts of CPS.



ExtremeWeather: A large-scale climate dataset for semi-supervised detection, localization, and understanding of extreme weather events

Neural Information Processing Systems

Then detection and identification of extreme weather events in large-scale climate simulations is an important problem for risk management, informing governmental policy decisions and advancing our basic understanding of the climate system. Recent work has shown that fully supervised convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can yield acceptable accuracy for classifying well-known types of extreme weather events when large amounts of labeled data are available. However, many different types of spatially localized climate patterns are of interest including hurricanes, extra-tropical cyclones, weather fronts, and blocking events among others. Existing labeled data for these patterns can be incomplete in various ways, such as covering only certain years or geographic areas and having false negatives. This type of climate data therefore poses a number of interesting machine learning challenges. We present a multichannel spatiotemporal CNN architecture for semi-supervised bounding box prediction and exploratory data analysis. We demonstrate that our approach is able to leverage temporal information and unlabeled data to improve the localization of extreme weather events. Further, we explore the representations learned by our model in order to better understand this important data. We present a dataset, ExtremeWeather, to encourage machine learning research in this area and to help facilitate further work in understanding and mitigating the effects of climate change. The dataset is available at extremeweatherdataset.github.io and the code is available at https://github.com/eracah/hur-detect.


ExtremeWeather: A large-scale climate dataset for semi-supervised detection, localization, and understanding of extreme weather events

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Then detection and identification of extreme weather events in large-scale climate simulations is an important problem for risk management, informing governmental policy decisions and advancing our basic understanding of the climate system. Recent work has shown that fully supervised convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can yield acceptable accuracy for classifying well-known types of extreme weather events when large amounts of labeled data are available. However, many different types of spatially localized climate patterns are of interest including hurricanes, extra-tropical cyclones, weather fronts, and blocking events among others. Existing labeled data for these patterns can be incomplete in various ways, such as covering only certain years or geographic areas and having false negatives. This type of climate data therefore poses a number of interesting machine learning challenges. We present a multichannel spatiotemporal CNN architecture for semi-supervised bounding box prediction and exploratory data analysis. We demonstrate that our approach is able to leverage temporal information and unlabeled data to improve the localization of extreme weather events. Further, we explore the representations learned by our model in order to better understand this important data. We present a dataset, ExtremeWeather, to encourage machine learning research in this area and to help facilitate further work in understanding and mitigating the effects of climate change. The dataset is available at extremeweatherdataset.github.io and the code is available at https://github.com/eracah/hur-detect.


Top Data Sources for Journalists in 2018 (350 Sources)

@machinelearnbot

There are many different types of sites that provide a wealth of free, freemium and paid data that can help audience developers and journalists with their reporting and storytelling efforts, The team at State of Digital Publishing would like to acknowledge these, as derived from manual searches and recognition from our existing audience. Kaggle's a site that allows users to discover machine learning while writing and sharing cloud-based code. Relying primarily on the enthusiasm of its sizable community, the site hosts dataset competitions for cash prizes and as a result it has massive amounts of data compiled into it. Whether you're looking for historical data from the New York Stock Exchange, an overview of candy production trends in the US, or cutting edge code, this site is chockful of information. It's impossible to be on the Internet for long without running into a Wikipedia article.