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AutoKnow: Self-Driving Knowledge Collection for Products of Thousands of Types

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Can one build a knowledge graph (KG) for all products in the world? Knowledge graphs have firmly established themselves as valuable sources of information for search and question answering, and it is natural to wonder if a KG can contain information about products offered at online retail sites. There have been several successful examples of generic KGs, but organizing information about products poses many additional challenges, including sparsity and noise of structured data for products, complexity of the domain with millions of product types and thousands of attributes, heterogeneity across large number of categories, as well as large and constantly growing number of products. We describe AutoKnow, our automatic (self-driving) system that addresses these challenges. The system includes a suite of novel techniques for taxonomy construction, product property identification, knowledge extraction, anomaly detection, and synonym discovery. AutoKnow is (a) automatic, requiring little human intervention, (b) multi-scalable, scalable in multiple dimensions (many domains, many products, and many attributes), and (c) integrative, exploiting rich customer behavior logs. AutoKnow has been operational in collecting product knowledge for over 11K product types.


Lumos: A Library for Diagnosing Metric Regressions in Web-Scale Applications

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Web-scale applications can ship code on a daily to weekly cadence. These applications rely on online metrics to monitor the health of new releases. Regressions in metric values need to be detected and diagnosed as early as possible to reduce the disruption to users and product owners. Regressions in metrics can surface due to a variety of reasons: genuine product regressions, changes in user population, and bias due to telemetry loss (or processing) are among the common causes. Diagnosing the cause of these metric regressions is costly for engineering teams as they need to invest time in finding the root cause of the issue as soon as possible. We present Lumos, a Python library built using the principles of AB testing to systematically diagnose metric regressions to automate such analysis. Lumos has been deployed across the component teams in Microsoft's Real-Time Communication applications Skype and Microsoft Teams. It has enabled engineering teams to detect 100s of real changes in metrics and reject 1000s of false alarms detected by anomaly detectors. The application of Lumos has resulted in freeing up as much as 95% of the time allocated to metric-based investigations. In this work, we open source Lumos and present our results from applying it to two different components within the RTC group over millions of sessions. This general library can be coupled with any production system to manage the volume of alerting efficiently.


Anomaly Detection in Trajectory Data with Normalizing Flows

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The task of detecting anomalous data patterns is as important in practical applications as challenging. In the context of spatial data, recognition of unexpected trajectories brings additional difficulties, such as high dimensionality and varying pattern lengths. We aim to tackle such a problem from a probability density estimation point of view, since it provides an unsupervised procedure to identify out of distribution samples. More specifically, we pursue an approach based on normalizing flows, a recent framework that enables complex density estimation from data with neural networks. Our proposal computes exact model likelihood values, an important feature of normalizing flows, for each segment of the trajectory. Then, we aggregate the segments' likelihoods into a single coherent trajectory anomaly score. Such a strategy enables handling possibly large sequences with different lengths. We evaluate our methodology, named aggregated anomaly detection with normalizing flows (GRADINGS), using real world trajectory data and compare it with more traditional anomaly detection techniques. The promising results obtained in the performed computational experiments indicate the feasibility of the GRADINGS, specially the variant that considers autoregressive normalizing flows.


Anomaly Detection with Density Estimation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We leverage recent breakthroughs in neural density estimation to propose a new unsupervised anomaly detection technique (ANODE). By estimating the probability density of the data in a signal region and in sidebands, and interpolating the latter into the signal region, a likelihood ratio of data vs. background can be constructed. This likelihood ratio is broadly sensitive to overdensities in the data that could be due to localized anomalies. In addition, a unique potential benefit of the ANODE method is that the background can be directly estimated using the learned densities. Finally, ANODE is robust against systematic differences between signal region and sidebands, giving it broader applicability than other methods. We demonstrate the power of this new approach using the LHC Olympics 2020 R\&D Dataset. We show how ANODE can enhance the significance of a dijet bump hunt by up to a factor of 7 with a 10\% accuracy on the background prediction. While the LHC is used as the recurring example, the methods developed here have a much broader applicability to anomaly detection in physics and beyond.


Blind Spot Detection for Safe Sim-to-Real Transfer

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Agents trained in simulation may make errors when performing actions in the real world due to mismatches between training and execution environments. These mistakes can be dangerous and difficult for the agent to discover because the agent is unable to predict them a priori. In this work, we propose the use of oracle feedback to learn a predictive model of these blind spots in order to reduce costly errors in real-world applications. We focus on blind spots in reinforcement learning (RL) that occur due to incomplete state representation: when the agent lacks necessary features to represent the true state of the world, and thus cannot distinguish between numerous states. We formalize the problem of discovering blind spots in RL as a noisy supervised learning problem with class imbalance. Our system learns models for predicting blind spots within unseen regions of the state space by combining techniques for label aggregation, calibration, and supervised learning. These models take into consideration noise emerging from different forms of oracle feedback, including demonstrations and corrections. We evaluate our approach across two domains and demonstrate that it achieves higher predictive performance than baseline methods, and also that the learned model can be used to selectively query an oracle at execution time to prevent errors. We also empirically analyze the biases of various feedback types and how these biases influence the discovery of blind spots. Further, we include analyses of our approach that incorporate relaxed initial optimality assumptions. (Interestingly, relaxing the assumptions of an optimal oracle and an optimal simulator policy helped our models to perform better.) We also propose extensions to our method that are intended to improve performance when using corrections and demonstrations data.


An Attribute Oriented Induction based Methodology for Data Driven Predictive Maintenance

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Attribute Oriented Induction (AOI) is a data mining algorithm used for extracting knowledge of relational data, taking into account expert knowledge. It is a clustering algorithm that works by transforming the values of the attributes and converting an instance into others that are more generic or ambiguous. In this way, it seeks similarities between elements to generate data groupings. AOI was initially conceived as an algorithm for knowledge discovery in databases, but over the years it has been applied to other areas such as spatial patterns, intrusion detection or strategy making. In this paper, AOI has been extended to the field of Predictive Maintenance. The objective is to demonstrate that combining expert knowledge and data collected from the machine can provide good results in the Predictive Maintenance of industrial assets. To this end we adapted the algorithm and used an LSTM approach to perform both the Anomaly Detection (AD) and the Remaining Useful Life (RUL). The results obtained confirm the validity of the proposal, as the methodology was able to detect anomalies, and calculate the RUL until breakage with considerable degree of accuracy.


Thoughtfully Using Artificial Intelligence in Earth Science - Eos

#artificialintelligence

Deriving scientific insights from artificial intelligence methods requires adhering to best practices and moving beyond off-the-shelf approaches. Artificial intelligence (AI) methods have emerged as useful tools in many Earth science domains (e.g., climate models, weather prediction, hydrology, space weather, and solid Earth). AI methods are being used for tasks of prediction, anomaly detection, event classification, and onboard decision-making on satellites, and they could potentially provide high-speed alternatives for representing subgrid processes in climate models [Rasp et al., 2018; Brenowitz and Bretherton, 2019]. Although the use of AI methods has spiked dramatically in recent years, we caution that their use in Earth science should be approached with vigilance and accompanied by the development of best practices for their use. Without best practices, inappropriate use of these methods might lead to "bad science," which could create a general backlash in the Earth science community against the use of AI methods.


Visualizing Image Content to Explain Novel Image Discovery

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The initial analysis of any large data set can be divided into two phases: (1) the identification of common trends or patterns and (2) the identification of anomalies or outliers that deviate from those trends. We focus on the goal of detecting observations with novel content, which can alert us to artifacts in the data set or, potentially, the discovery of previously unknown phenomena. To aid in interpreting and diagnosing the novel aspect of these selected observations, we recommend the use of novelty detection methods that generate explanations. In the context of large image data sets, these explanations should highlight what aspect of a given image is new (color, shape, texture, content) in a human-comprehensible form. We propose DEMUD-VIS, the first method for providing visual explanations of novel image content by employing a convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract image features, a method that uses reconstruction error to detect novel content, and an up-convolutional network to convert CNN feature representations back into image space. We demonstrate this approach on diverse images from ImageNet, freshwater streams, and the surface of Mars.


Visual Analytics of Anomalous User Behaviors: A Survey

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The increasing accessibility of data provides substantial opportunities for understanding user behaviors. Unearthing anomalies in user behaviors is of particular importance as it helps signal harmful incidents such as network intrusions, terrorist activities, and financial frauds. Many visual analytics methods have been proposed to help understand user behavior-related data in various application domains. In this work, we survey the state of art in visual analytics of anomalous user behaviors and classify them into four categories including social interaction, travel, network communication, and transaction. We further examine the research works in each category in terms of data types, anomaly detection techniques, and visualization techniques, and interaction methods. Finally, we discuss the findings and potential research directions.


Online Multivariate Anomaly Detection and Localization for High-dimensional Settings

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper considers the real-time detection of anomalies in high-dimensional systems. The goal is to detect anomalies quickly and accurately so that the appropriate countermeasures could be taken in time, before the system possibly gets harmed. We propose a sequential and multivariate anomaly detection method that scales well to high-dimensional datasets. The proposed method follows a nonparametric, i.e., data-driven, and semi-supervised approach, i.e., trains only on nominal data. Thus, it is applicable to a wide range of applications and data types. Thanks to its multivariate nature, it can quickly and accurately detect challenging anomalies, such as changes in the correlation structure and stealth low-rate cyberattacks. Its asymptotic optimality and computational complexity are comprehensively analyzed. In conjunction with the detection method, an effective technique for localizing the anomalous data dimensions is also proposed. We further extend the proposed detection and localization methods to a supervised setup where an additional anomaly dataset is available, and combine the proposed semi-supervised and supervised algorithms to obtain an online learning algorithm under the semi-supervised framework. The practical use of proposed algorithms are demonstrated in DDoS attack mitigation, and their performances are evaluated using a real IoT-botnet dataset and simulations.