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What is computer vision?

#artificialintelligence

If I asked you to name the objects in the picture below, you would probably come up with a list of words such as "tablecloth, basket, grass, boy, girl, man, woman, orange juice bottle, tomatoes, lettuce, disposable plates…" without thinking twice. Now, if I told you to describe the picture below, you would probably say, "It's the picture of a family picnic" again without giving it a second thought. Those are two very easy tasks that any person with below-average intelligence and above the age of six or seven could accomplish. However, in the background, a very complicated process takes place. The human vision is a very intricate piece of organic technology that involves our eyes and visual cortex, but also takes into account our mental models of objects, our abstract understanding of concepts and our personal experiences through billions and trillions of interactions we've made with the world in our lives.


A Survey on Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Edge intelligence refers to a set of connected systems and devices for data collection, caching, processing, and analysis in locations close to where data is captured based on artificial intelligence. The aim of edge intelligence is to enhance the quality and speed of data processing and protect the privacy and security of the data. Although recently emerged, spanning the period from 2011 to now, this field of research has shown explosive growth over the past five years. In this paper, we present a thorough and comprehensive survey on the literature surrounding edge intelligence. We first identify four fundamental components of edge intelligence, namely edge caching, edge training, edge inference, and edge offloading, based on theoretical and practical results pertaining to proposed and deployed systems. We then aim for a systematic classification of the state of the solutions by examining research results and observations for each of the four components and present a taxonomy that includes practical problems, adopted techniques, and application goals. For each category, we elaborate, compare and analyse the literature from the perspectives of adopted techniques, objectives, performance, advantages and drawbacks, etc. This survey article provides a comprehensive introduction to edge intelligence and its application areas. In addition, we summarise the development of the emerging research field and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open issues and possible theoretical and technical solutions.


Deep learning advances are boosting computer vision -- but there's still clear limits

#artificialintelligence

This article is part of Demystifying AI, a series of posts that (try to) disambiguate the jargon and myths surrounding AI. Since the early days of artificial intelligence, computer scientists have been dreaming of creating machines that can see and understand the world as we do. The efforts have led to the emergence of computer vision, a vast subfield of AI and computer science that deals with processing the content of visual data. In recent years, computer vision has taken great leaps thanks to advances in deep learning and artificial neural networks. Deep learning is a branch of AI that is especially good at processing unstructured data such as images and videos.


Deep learning advances are boosting computer vision -- but there's still clear limits

#artificialintelligence

This article is part of Demystifying AI, a series of posts that (try to) disambiguate the jargon and myths surrounding AI. Since the early days of artificial intelligence, computer scientists have been dreaming of creating machines that can see and understand the world as we do. The efforts have led to the emergence of computer vision, a vast subfield of AI and computer science that deals with processing the content of visual data. In recent years, computer vision has taken great leaps thanks to advances in deep learning and artificial neural networks. Deep learning is a branch of AI that is especially good at processing unstructured data such as images and videos.


Machines Learn Appearance Bias in Face Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We seek to determine whether state-of-the-art, black box face recognition techniques can learn first-impression appearance bias from human annotations. With FaceNet, a popular face recognition architecture, we train a transfer learning model on human subjects' first impressions of personality traits in other faces. We measure the extent to which this appearance bias is embedded and benchmark learning performance for six different perceived traits. In particular, we find that our model is better at judging a person's dominance based on their face than other traits like trustworthiness or likeability, even for emotionally neutral faces. We also find that our model tends to predict emotions for deliberately manipulated faces with higher accuracy than for randomly generated faces, just like a human subject. Our results lend insight into the manner in which appearance biases may be propagated by standard face recognition models.


Computer Vision Applications in 10 Industries

#artificialintelligence

Computer vision, or abbreviated to CV, is an increasingly important technology in the field of artificial intelligence. Those involved in its development believe that it has endless possibilities and a wealth of applications in a range of fields. These include developing non-invasive health care treatments to self-driving vehicles and virtual shopping experiences. Through the course of this article, we will seek to explain exactly what computer vision is and the applications of computer vision in all major industries. We will also look at its current limitations as well as how it is already being applied. Computer vision has the potential to transform a number of operations and sectors. As it grows in importance, its potential and applications will be key to helping it enhance your organization. Computer vision is a branch of artificial intelligence that enables computers to see and identify images, processing them as humans would. Using images from cameras and videos, deep learning models enable machines to accurately identify and classify the objects. Computer vision can be confused with image processing. However, computer vision is a more high-level process. It deals with the analysis of an image. In the CV process, the input is an image while the output is the interpretation of an image.


Computer vision applications: The power and limits of deep learning

#artificialintelligence

This article is part of Demystifying AI, a series of posts that (try to) disambiguate the jargon and myths surrounding AI. Since the early days of artificial intelligence, computer scientists have been dreaming of creating machines that can see and understand the world as we do. The efforts have led to the emergence of computer vision, a vast subfield of AI and computer science that deals with processing the content of visual data. In recent years, computer vision has taken great leaps thanks to advances of deep learning and artificial neural networks. Deep learning is a branch of AI that is especially good at processing unstructured data such as images and videos.


UCSF, NVIDIA join to research AI use in medical imaging

#artificialintelligence

UC San Francisco is upping its research into advanced computing in healthcare, launching an artificial intelligence center specifically to advance its use in medical imaging. The Center for Intelligent Imaging will develop and apply artificial intelligence in the quest to find new ways to use radiology to look inside the body and to evaluate health and disease. UCSF investigators in the center will work with Santa Clara, Calif-based NVIDIA, which develops AI products to support infrastructure and tools. The collaboration will aim to create new ways to enable the translation of AI into clinical practice. "Artificial intelligence represents the next frontier for diagnostic medicine," says Christopher Hess, MD, chair of UCSF's Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging.


Does Gender Matter? Towards Fairness in Dialogue Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently there are increasing concerns about the fairness of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in real-world applications such as computer vision and recommendations. For example, recognition algorithms in computer vision are unfair to black people such as poorly detecting their faces and inappropriately identifying them as "gorillas". As one crucial application of AI, dialogue systems have been extensively applied in our society. They are usually built with real human conversational data; thus they could inherit some fairness issues which are held in the real world. However, the fairness of dialogue systems has not been investigated. In this paper, we perform the initial study about the fairness issues in dialogue systems. In particular, we construct the first dataset and propose quantitative measures to understand fairness in dialogue models. Our studies demonstrate that popular dialogue models show significant prejudice towards different genders and races. We will release the dataset and the measurement code later to foster the fairness research in dialogue systems.


PDANet: Polarity-consistent Deep Attention Network for Fine-grained Visual Emotion Regression

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Existing methods on visual emotion analysis mainly focus on coarse-grained emotion classification, i.e. assigning an image with a dominant discrete emotion category. However, these methods cannot well reflect the complexity and subtlety of emotions. In this paper, we study the fine-grained regression problem of visual emotions based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Specifically, we develop a Polarity-consistent Deep Attention Network (PDANet), a novel network architecture that integrates attention into a CNN with an emotion polarity constraint. First, we propose to incorporate both spatial and channel-wise attentions into a CNN for visual emotion regression, which jointly considers the local spatial connectivity patterns along each channel and the interdependency between different channels. Second, we design a novel regression loss, i.e. polarity-consistent regression (PCR) loss, based on the weakly supervised emotion polarity to guide the attention generation. By optimizing the PCR loss, PDANet can generate a polarity preserved attention map and thus improve the emotion regression performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on the IAPS, NAPS, and EMOTIC datasets, and the results demonstrate that the proposed PDANet outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches by a large margin for fine-grained visual emotion regression. Our source code is released at: https://github.com/ZizhouJia/PDANet.