to

### A Bayesian model for a simulated meta-analysis

There are multiple ways to estimate a Stan model in R, but I choose to build the Stan code directly rather than using the brms or rstanarm packages. In the Stan code, we need to define the data structure, specify the parameters, specify any transformed parameters (which are just a function of the parameters), and then build the model – which includes laying out the prior distributions as well as the likelihood. In this case, the model is slightly different from what was presented in the context of a mixed effects model. The key difference is that there are prior distributions on $$\Delta$$ and $$\tau$$, introducing an additional level of uncertainty into the estimate. This added measure of uncertainty is a strength of the Bayesian approach.

### Bayes Theorem

Both frequentist and Bayesian probability have a role to play in machine learning. For example, if dealing with truly random and discrete variables, such as landing a six in a die roll, the traditional approach of simply calculating the odds (frequency) is the fastest way to model a likely outcome. However, if the six keeps coming up far more often than the predicated 1/6 odds, only Bayesian probability would take that new observation into account and increase the confidence level that someone is playing with loaded dice.

### [D] Paper Explained - Deep Ensembles: A Loss Landscape Perspective (Full Video Analysis)

Surprisingly, they outperform Bayesian Networks, which are - in theory - doing the same thing. This paper investigates how Deep Ensembles are especially suited to capturing the non-convex loss landscape of neural networks.

### Probabilistic Programming and Bayesian Inference for Time Series Analysis and Forecasting

As described in , time series data includes many kinds of real experimental data taken from various domains such as finance, medicine, scientific research (e.g., global warming, speech analysis, earthquakes), etc. Time series forecasting has many real applications in various areas such as forecasting of business (e.g., sales, stock), weather, decease, and others . Statistical modeling and inference (e.g., ARIMA model)  is one of the popular methods for time series analysis and forecasting. The philosophy of Bayesian inference is to consider probability as a measure of believability in an event  and use Bayes' theorem to update the probability as more evidence or information becomes available, while the philosophy of frequentist inference considers probability as the long-run frequency of events . Generally speaking, we can use the Frequentist inference only when a large number of data samples are available.

### Regularization -- Part 2

These are the lecture notes for FAU's YouTube Lecture "Deep Learning". This is a full transcript of the lecture video & matching slides. We hope, you enjoy this as much as the videos. Of course, this transcript was created with deep learning techniques largely automatically and only minor manual modifications were performed. If you spot mistakes, please let us know!

### Causal AI & Bayesian Networks

We are all familiar with the dictum that "correlation does not imply causation". Furthermore, given a data file with samples of two variables x and z, we all know how to calculate the correlation between x and z. But it's only an elite minority, the few, the proud, the Bayesian Network aficionados, that know how to calculate the causal connection between x and z. Neural Net aficionados are incapable of doing this. Their Neural nets are just too wimpy to cut it.

### Mastering Probability and Statistics in Python

Mastering Probability and Statistics in Python Learning Statistics, Probability, Bayes Classifier and Statistical and Probabilistic

### Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) & Bayesian Networks

Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) software is software for producing forgeries and imitations of data (aka synthetic data, fake data). Human beings have been making fakes, with good or evil intent, of almost everything they possibly can, since the beginning of the human race. Thus, perhaps not too surprisingly, GAN software has been widely used since it was first proposed in this amazingly recent 2014 paper. To gauge how widely GAN software has been used so far, see, for example, this 2019 article entitled "18 Impressive Applications of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs)" Sounds (voices, music,...), Images (realistic pictures, paintings, drawings, handwriting, ...), Text,etc. The forgeries can be tweaked so that they range from being very similar to the originals, to being whimsical exaggerations thereof.

### Bayes' Theorem in Layman's Terms

If you have difficulty in understanding Bayes' theorem, trust me you are not alone. In this tutorial, I'll help you to cross that bridge step by step. Let's consider Alex and Brenda are two people in your office, When you are working you saw someone walked in front of you, and you didn't notice who is she/he. Now I'll give you extra information, Let's calculate the probabilities with this new information, Probability that Alex is the person passed by is 2/5 i.e, Probability that Brenda is the person passed by is 3/5 i.e, Probabilities that we are calculated before the new information are called Prior, and probabilities that we are calculated after the new information are called Posterior. Consider a scenario where, Alex comes to the office 3 days a week, and Brenda comes to the office 1 day a week.