Transfer learning aims at improving the performance of target learners on target domains by transferring the knowledge contained in different but related source domains. In this way, the dependence on a large number of target domain data can be reduced for constructing target learners. Due to the wide application prospects, transfer learning has become a popular and promising area in machine learning. Although there are already some valuable and impressive surveys on transfer learning, these surveys introduce approaches in a relatively isolated way and lack the recent advances in transfer learning. As the rapid expansion of the transfer learning area, it is both necessary and challenging to comprehensively review the relevant studies. This survey attempts to connect and systematize the existing transfer learning researches, as well as to summarize and interpret the mechanisms and the strategies in a comprehensive way, which may help readers have a better understanding of the current research status and ideas. Different from previous surveys, this survey paper reviews over forty representative transfer learning approaches from the perspectives of data and model. The applications of transfer learning are also briefly introduced. In order to show the performance of different transfer learning models, twenty representative transfer learning models are used for experiments. The models are performed on three different datasets, i.e., Amazon Reviews, Reuters-21578, and Office-31. And the experimental results demonstrate the importance of selecting appropriate transfer learning models for different applications in practice.
Abstract--Although large annotated sleep databases are publicly available, and might be used to train automated scorin g algorithms, it might still be a challenge to develop an optim al algorithm for your personal sleep study, which might have fe w subjects or rely on a different recording setup. Both direct ly applying a learned algorithm or retraining the algorithm on your rather small database is suboptimal. And definitely sta te-of- the-art sleep staging algorithms based on deep neural netwo rks demand a large amount of data to be trained. This work present s a deep transfer learning approach to overcome the channel mismatch problem and enable transferring knowledge from a large dataset to a small cohort for automatic sleep staging. We start from a generic end-to-end deep learning framework for sequence-to-sequence sleep staging and derive two netw orks adhering to this framework as a device for transfer learning . The networks are first trained in the source domain (i.e. the large database). The pretrained networks are then finetuned in the target domain, i.e. the small cohort, to complete knowle dge transfer . We employ the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) database consisting of 200 subjects as the source dom ain and study deep transfer learning on four different target do - mains: the Sleep Cassette subset and the Sleep T elemetry sub set of the Sleep-EDF Expanded database, the Surrey-cEEGGrid database, and the Surrey-PSG database. The target domains are purposely adopted to cover different degrees of channel mismatch to the source domain. Our experimental results sho w significant performance improvement on automatic sleep sta ging on the target domains achieved with the proposed deep transf er learning approach and we discuss the impact of various fine tuning approaches. Index T erms --Automatic sleep staging, sequence-to-sequence, deep learning, transfer learning.
With the rapid development of computing technology, wearable devices such as smart phones and wristbands make it easy to get access to people's health information including activities, sleep, sports, etc. Smart healthcare achieves great success by training machine learning models on a large quantity of user data. However, there are two critical challenges. Firstly, user data often exists in the form of isolated islands, making it difficult to perform aggregation without compromising privacy security. Secondly, the models trained on the cloud fail on personalization. In this paper, we propose FedHealth, the first federated transfer learning framework for wearable healthcare to tackle these challenges. FedHealth performs data aggregation through federated learning, and then builds personalized models by transfer learning. It is able to achieve accurate and personalized healthcare without compromising privacy and security. Experiments demonstrate that FedHealth produces higher accuracy (5.3% improvement) for wearable activity recognition when compared to traditional methods. FedHealth is general and extensible and has the potential to be used in many healthcare applications.
The introduction of deep learning and transfer learning techniques in fields such as computer vision allowed a leap forward in the accuracy of image classification tasks. Currently there is only limited use of such techniques in neuroscience. The challenge of using deep learning methods to successfully train models in neuroscience, lies in the complexity of the information that is processed, the availability of data and the cost of producing sufficient high quality annotations. Inspired by its application in computer vision, we introduce transfer learning on electrophysiological data to enable training a model with limited amounts of data. Our method was tested on the dataset of the BCI competition IV 2a and compared to the top results that were obtained using traditional machine learning techniques. Using our DL model we outperform the top result of the competition by 33%. We also explore transferability of knowledge between trained models over different experiments, called inter-experimental transfer learning. This reduces the amount of required data even further and is especially useful when few subjects are available. This method is able to outperform the standard deep learning methods used in the BCI competition IV 2b approaches by 18%. In this project we propose a method that can produce reliable electroencephalography (EEG) signal classification, based on modest amounts of training data through the use of transfer learning.
Transfer learning is widely used in deep neural network models when there are few labeled examples available. The common approach is to take a pre-trained network in a similar task and finetune the model parameters. This is usually done blindly without a pre-selection from a set of pre-trained models, or by finetuning a set of models trained on different tasks and selecting the best performing one by cross-validation. We address this problem by proposing an approach to assess the relationship between visual tasks and their task-specific models. Our method uses Representation Similarity Analysis (RSA), which is commonly used to find a correlation between neuronal responses from brain data and models. With RSA we obtain a similarity score among tasks by computing correlations between models trained on different tasks. Our method is efficient as it requires only pre-trained models, and a few images with no further training. We demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method for generating task taxonomy on Taskonomy dataset. We next evaluate the relationship of RSA with the transfer learning performance on Taskonomy tasks and a new task: Pascal VOC semantic segmentation. Our results reveal that models trained on tasks with higher similarity score show higher transfer learning performance. Surprisingly, the best transfer learning result for Pascal VOC semantic segmentation is not obtained from the pre-trained model on semantic segmentation, probably due to the domain differences, and our method successfully selects the high performing models.
Different functional areas of the human brain play different roles in brain activity, which has not been paid sufficient research attention in the brain-computer interface (BCI) field. This paper presents a new approach for electroencephalography (EEG) classification that applies attention-based transfer learning. Our approach considers the importance of different brain functional areas to improve the accuracy of EEG classification, and provides an additional way to automatically identify brain functional areas associated with new activities without the involvement of a medical professional. We demonstrate empirically that our approach out-performs state-of-the-art approaches in the task of EEG classification, and the results of visualization indicate that our approach can detect brain functional areas related to a certain task.
The size of publicly available data in cognitive neuro-imaging has increased a lot in recent years, thanks to strong research and community efforts. Exploiting this wealth of data demands new methods to turn the heterogeneous cognitive information held in different task-fMRI studies into common-universal-cognitive models. In this paper, we pool data from large fMRI repositories to predict psychological conditions from statistical brain maps across different studies and subjects. We leverage advances in deep learning, intermediate representations and multi-task learning to learn universal interpretable low-dimensional representations of brain images, usable for predicting psychological stimuli in all input studies. The method improves decoding performance for 80% of studies, by permitting cognitive information to flow from every study to the others: it notably gives a strong performance boost when decoding studies of small size. The trained low-dimensional representation-task-optimized networks-is interpretable as a set of basis cognitive dimensions relevant to meaningful categories of cognitive stimuli. Our approach opens new ways of extracting information from brain maps, overcoming the low power of typical fMRI studies.
As a promising area in artificial intelligence, a new learning paradigm, called Small Sample Learning (SSL), has been attracting prominent research attention in the recent years. In this paper, we aim to present a survey to comprehensively introduce the current techniques proposed on this topic. Specifically, current SSL techniques can be mainly divided into two categories. The first category of SSL approaches can be called "concept learning", which emphasizes learning new concepts from only few related observations. The purpose is mainly to simulate human learning behaviors like recognition, generation, imagination, synthesis and analysis. The second category is called "experience learning", which usually co-exists with the large sample learning manner of conventional machine learning. This category mainly focuses on learning with insufficient samples, and can also be called small data learning in some literatures. More extensive surveys on both categories of SSL techniques are introduced and some neuroscience evidences are provided to clarify the rationality of the entire SSL regime, and the relationship with human learning process. Some discussions on the main challenges and possible future research directions along this line are also presented.