This topic is so sensitive to be considered nowadays and in urgent need to do something about it. There are more than 264 million individuals worldwide who are suffering from depression. Depression is the main cause of disability worldwide and is a significant supporter of the overall global burden of disease and nearly 800,000 individuals consistently bite the dust because of suicide every year. Suicide is the second driving reason for death in 15–29-year-olds. Treatment for depression is often delayed, imprecise, and/or missed entirely.
Suicide is a critical issue in the modern society. Early detection and prevention of suicide attempt should be addressed to save people's life. Current suicidal ideation detection methods include clinical methods based on the interaction between social workers or experts and the targeted individuals, and machine learning techniques with feature engineering or deep learning for automatic detection based on online social contents. This is the first survey that comprehensively introduces and discusses the methods from these categories. Domain-specific applications of suicidal ideation detection are also reviewed according to their data sources, i.e., questionnaires, electronic health records, suicide notes, and online user content. To facilitate further research, several specific tasks and datasets are introduced. Finally, we summarize the limitations of current work and provide an outlook of further research directions.
Resting-state brain networks represent the intrinsic state of the brain during the majority of cognitive and sensorimotor tasks. However, no study has yet presented concise predictors of task-induced vigilance variability from spectrospatial features of the pre-task, resting-state electroencephalograms (EEG). We asked ten healthy volunteers (6 females, 4 males) to participate in 105-minute fixed-sequence-varying-duration sessions of sustained attention to response task (SART). A novel and adaptive vigilance scoring scheme was designed based on the performance and response time in consecutive trials, and demonstrated large inter-participant variability in terms of maintaining consistent tonic performance. Multiple linear regression using feature relevance analysis obtained significant predictors of the mean cumulative vigilance score (CVS), mean response time, and variabilities of these scores from the resting-state, band-power ratios of EEG signals, p<0.05. Single-layer neural networks trained with cross-validation also captured different associations for the beta sub-bands. Increase in the gamma (28-48 Hz) and upper beta ratios from the left central and temporal regions predicted slower reactions and more inconsistent vigilance as explained by the increased activation of default mode network (DMN) and differences between the high- and low-attention networks at temporal regions. Higher ratios of parietal alpha from the Brodmann's areas 18, 19, and 37 during the eyes-open states predicted slower responses but more consistent CVS and reactions associated with the superior ability in vigilance maintenance. The proposed framework and these findings on the most stable and significant attention predictors from the intrinsic EEG power ratios can be used to model attention variations during the calibration sessions of BCI applications and vigilance monitoring systems.
Bipolar disorder (BPD) is a chronic mental illness characterized by extreme mood and energy changes from mania to depression. These changes drive behaviors that often lead to devastating personal or social consequences. BPD is managed clinically with regular interactions with care providers, who assess mood, energy levels, and the form and content of speech. Recent work has proposed smartphones for monitoring mood using speech. However, these works do not predict when to intervene. Predicting when to intervene is challenging because there is not a single measure that is relevant for every person: different individuals may have different levels of symptom severity considered typical. Additionally, this typical mood, or baseline, may change over time, making a single symptom threshold insufficient. This work presents an innovative approach that expands clinical mood monitoring to predict when interventions are necessary using an anomaly detection framework, which we call Temporal Normalization. We first validate the model using a dataset annotated for clinical interventions and then incorporate this method in a deep learning framework to predict mood anomalies from natural, unstructured, telephone speech data. The combination of these approaches provides a framework to enable real-world speech-focused mood monitoring.
-- In cognitive psychology, automatic and self-reinforcing irrational thought patterns are known as cognitive distortions. Left unchecked, patients exhibiting these types of thoughts can become stuck in negative feedback loops of unhealthy thinking, leading to inaccurate perceptions of reality commonly associated with anxiety and depression. In this paper, we present a machine learning framework for the automatic detection and classification of 15 common cognitive distortions in two novel mental health free text datasets collected from both crowdsourcing and a real-world online therapy program. When differentiating between distorted and non-distorted passages, our model achieved a weighted F1 score of 0.88. For classifying distorted passages into one of 15 distortion categories, our model yielded weighted F1 scores of 0.68 in the larger crowdsourced dataset and 0.45 in the smaller online counseling dataset, both of which outperformed random baseline metrics by a large margin. For both tasks, we also identified the most discriminative words and phrases between classes to highlight common thematic elements for improving targeted and therapist-guided mental health treatment. Furthermore, we performed an exploratory analysis using unsupervised content-based clustering and topic modeling algorithms as first efforts towards a data-driven perspective on the thematic relationship between similar cognitive distortions traditionally deemed unique. Finally, we highlight the difficulties in applying mental health-based machine learning in a real-world setting and comment on the implications and benefits of our framework for improving automated delivery of therapeutic treatment in conjunction with traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy. CCORDING to the National Institute of Mental Health, anxiety disorders affect more than 18% of the U.S. adult population every year . Additionally, the National Survey of Drug Use and Health reports that 6.7% of the U.S. adult population experienced at least one major depressive disorder episode in the past year . This work was supported by NSF-IIP 1631871 from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Division of Industrial Innovation and Partnerships (IIP). Rashidi are with the University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 USA (email: firstname.lastname@example.org; S. Benton is with T AO Connect, Inc., St. Petersburg, FL 33701 USA (email: sherry .email@example.com).
Objective: Schizophrenia seriously affects the quality of life. To date, both simple (linear discriminant analysis) and complex (deep neural network) machine learning methods have been utilized to identify schizophrenia based on functional connectivity features. The existing simple methods need two separate steps (i.e., feature extraction and classification) to achieve the identification, which disables simultaneous tuning for the best feature extraction and classifier training. The complex methods integrate two steps and can be simultaneously tuned to achieve optimal performance, but these methods require a much larger amount of data for model training. Methods: To overcome the aforementioned drawbacks, we proposed a multi-kernel capsule network (MKCapsnet), which was developed by considering the brain anatomical structure. Kernels were set to match with partition sizes of brain anatomical structure in order to capture interregional connectivities at the varying scales. With the inspiration of widely-used dropout strategy in deep learning, we developed vector dropout in the capsule layer to prevent overfitting of the model. Results: The comparison results showed that the proposed method outperformed the state-of-the-art methods. Besides, we compared performances using different parameters and illustrated the routing process to reveal characteristics of the proposed method. Conclusion: MKCapsnet is promising for schizophrenia identification. Significance: Our study not only proposed a multi-kernel capsule network but also provided useful information in the parameter setting, which is informative for further studies using a capsule network for neurophysiological signal classification.
We discuss the objectives of any endeavor in creating artificial intelligence, AI, and provide a possible alternative. Intelligence might be an unintended consequence of curiosity left to roam free, best exemplified by a frolicking infant. This suggests that our attempts at AI could have been misguided; what we actually need to strive for can be termed artificial curiosity, AC, and intelligence happens as a consequence of those efforts. For this unintentional yet welcome aftereffect to set in a foundational list of guiding principles needs to be present. We discuss what these essential doctrines might be and why their establishment is required to form connections, possibly growing, between a knowledge store that has been built up and new pieces of information that curiosity will bring back. As more findings are acquired and more bonds are fermented, we need a way to, periodically, reduce the amount of data; in the sense, it is important to capture the critical characteristics of what has been accumulated or produce a summary of what has been gathered. We start with the intuition for this line of reasoning and formalize it with a series of models (and iterative improvements) that will be necessary to make the incubation of intelligence a reality. Our discussion provides conceptual modifications to the Turing Test and to Searle's Chinese room argument. We discuss the future implications for society as AI becomes an integral part of life.
Automatic speech emotion recognition provides computers with critical context to enable user understanding. While methods trained and tested within the same dataset have been shown successful, they often fail when applied to unseen datasets. To address this, recent work has focused on adversarial methods to find more generalized representations of emotional speech. However, many of these methods have issues converging, and only involve datasets collected in laboratory conditions. In this paper, we introduce Adversarial Discriminative Domain Generalization (ADDoG), which follows an easier to train "meet in the middle" approach. The model iteratively moves representations learned for each dataset closer to one another, improving cross-dataset generalization. We also introduce Multiclass ADDoG, or MADDoG, which is able to extend the proposed method to more than two datasets, simultaneously. Our results show consistent convergence for the introduced methods, with significantly improved results when not using labels from the target dataset. We also show how, in most cases, ADDoG and MADDoG can be used to improve upon baseline state-of-the-art methods when target dataset labels are added and in-the-wild data are considered. Even though our experiments focus on cross-corpus speech emotion, these methods could be used to remove unwanted factors of variation in other settings.
With the recent rise of #MeToo, an increasing number of personal stories about sexual harassment and sexual abuse have been shared online. In order to push forward the fight against such harassment and abuse, we present the task of automatically categorizing and analyzing various forms of sexual harassment, based on stories shared on the online forum SafeCity. For the labels of groping, ogling, and commenting, our single-label CNN-RNN model achieves an accuracy of 86.5%, and our multi-label model achieves a Hamming score of 82.5%. Furthermore, we present analysis using LIME, first-derivative saliency heatmaps, activation clustering, and embedding visualization to interpret neural model predictions and demonstrate how this extracts features that can help automatically fill out incident reports, identify unsafe areas, avoid unsafe practices, and 'pin the creeps'.
New technologies have enabled the investigation of biology and human health at an unprecedented scale and in multiple dimensions. These dimensions include myriad properties describing genome, epigenome, transcriptome, microbiome, phenotype, and lifestyle. No single data type, however, can capture the complexity of all the factors relevant to understanding a phenomenon such as a disease. Integrative methods that combine data from multiple technologies have thus emerged as critical statistical and computational approaches. The key challenge in developing such approaches is the identification of effective models to provide a comprehensive and relevant systems view. An ideal method can answer a biological or medical question, identifying important features and predicting outcomes, by harnessing heterogeneous data across several dimensions of biological variation. In this Review, we describe the principles of data integration and discuss current methods and available implementations. We provide examples of successful data integration in biology and medicine. Finally, we discuss current challenges in biomedical integrative methods and our perspective on the future development of the field.