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A History Of Artificial Intelligence -- From the Beginning

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In the seminal paper on AI, titled Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Alan Turing famously asked: "Can machines think?" -- or, more accurately, can machines successfully imitate thought? Turing clarifies that he's interested in machines that "are intended to carry out any operations which could be done by a human computer." In other words, he's interested in complex digital machines. Since the achievement of a thinking digital machine is a matter of the evolution of machines, it reasons to start at the beginning of machine history. A machine is a device that does work.


An executive primer on artificial general intelligence

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To differentiate themselves from researchers solving narrow AI problems, a few research teams have claimed an almost proprietary interest in producing human-level intelligence (or more) under the name "artificial general intelligence." Some have adopted the term "super-intelligence" to describe AGI systems that by themselves could rapidly design even more capable systems, with those systems further evolving to develop capabilities that far exceed any possessed by humans.


Artificial intelligence: The thinking machine IAM Network

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Artificial intelligence is a bit of a buzz term these days – but what do people really mean when they say AI? And why should local governments care? First of all, AI is extremely misunderstood. We aren't talking about HAL from "2001: A Space Odyssey," necessarily; we're talking about what Alan Turing speculated about "thinking machines" back in the 1950s. According to the Brookings Institute, AI is generally thought to refer to "machines that respond to stimulation consistent with traditional responses from humans, given the human capacity for contemplation, judgment and intention."


12 Thought-Provoking Quotes About Artificial Intelligence

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Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the first thinkers to take the concept of artificial intelligence ... [ ] seriously. His pioneering work laid the foundation for the fields of digital computing and AI as we know them today. In the most direct sense, artificial intelligence is an engineering challenge. The mathematics underlying today's cutting-edge AI algorithms is complex. The amount of computing resources required to train state-of-the-art AI models is formidable.


12 Thought-Provoking Quotes About Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the first thinkers to take the concept of artificial intelligence ... [ ] seriously. His pioneering work laid the foundation for the fields of digital computing and AI as we know them today. In the most direct sense, artificial intelligence is an engineering challenge. The mathematics underlying today's cutting-edge AI algorithms is complex. The amount of computing resources required to train state-of-the-art AI models is formidable.


12 Thought-Provoking Quotes About Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Alan Turing (1912-1954) was one of the first thinkers to take the concept of artificial intelligence ... [ ] seriously. His pioneering work laid the foundation for the fields of digital computing and AI as we know them today. In the most direct sense, artificial intelligence is an engineering challenge. The mathematics underlying today's cutting-edge AI algorithms is complex. The amount of computing resources required to train state-of-the-art AI models is formidable.


No Ghost in the Machine - The American Scholar

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It is desirable to guard against the possibility of exaggerated ideas that might arise as to the powers of the Analytical Engine. In considering any new subject, there is frequently a tendency, first, to overrate what we find to be already interesting or remarkable; and, secondly, by a sort of natural reaction, to undervalue the true state of the case, when we do discover that our notions have surpassed those that were really tenable. The Analytical Engine has no pretensions whatever to originate anything. It can do whatever we know how to order it to perform. It can follow analysis; but it has no power of anticipating any analytical relations or truths. Its province is to assist us in making available what we are already acquainted with. The first words uttered on a controversial subject can rarely be taken as the last, but this comment by British mathematician Lady Lovelace, who died in 1852, is just that--the basis of our understanding of what computers are and can be, including the notion that they might come to acquire artificial intelligence, which here means "strong AI," or the ability to think in the fullest sense of the word. Her words demand and repay close reading: the computer "can do whatever we know how to order it to perform." This means both that it can do only what we know how to instruct it to do, and that it can do all that we know how to instruct it to do.


Computing Machinery and Intelligence

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This question begs one to define the words "machine" and "think". Instead of defining them -- which is seemingly easy, let's replace the question with one that is very similar. Before that, we introduce the imitation game. The game is played by three. The interrogator is isolated from the other two and can ask each one of them questions, with a goal of identifying who the man and who the woman is.


A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence

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The concept of AI has been around for many decades. British mathematician Alan Turing proposed in 1950 that it might be possible for machines to use information to reason, solve problems, and make decisions. His framework is the basis of the Turing Test, which says an AI system learns until indistinguishable from a human being in its ability to hold a conversation. In 1956, a team presented proof of concept on AI at the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. Also in the 1950s, a group of researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) began work that would become the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.


The AI delusion: why humans trump machines

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As well as playing a key role in cracking the Enigma code at Bletchley Park during the Second World War, and conceiving of the modern computer, the British mathematician Alan Turing owes his public reputation to the test he devised in 1950. Crudely speaking, it asks whether a human judge can distinguish between a human and an artificial intelligence based only on their responses to conversation or questions. This test, which he called the "imitation game," was popularised 15 years later in Philip K Dick's science-fiction novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? But Turing is also widely remembered as having committed suicide in 1954, quite probably driven to it by the hormone treatment he was instructed to take as an alternative to imprisonment for homosexuality (deemed to make him a security risk), and it is only comparatively recently that his genius has been afforded its full due. In 2009, Gordon Brown apologised on behalf of the British government for his treatment; in 2014, his posthumous star rose further again when Benedict Cumberbatch played him in The Imitation Game; and in 2021, he will be the face on the new £50 note.