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Multimodal Categorization of Crisis Events in Social Media

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent developments in image classification and natural language processing, coupled with the rapid growth in social media usage, have enabled fundamental advances in detecting breaking events around the world in real-time. Emergency response is one such area that stands to gain from these advances. By processing billions of texts and images a minute, events can be automatically detected to enable emergency response workers to better assess rapidly evolving situations and deploy resources accordingly. To date, most event detection techniques in this area have focused on image-only or text-only approaches, limiting detection performance and impacting the quality of information delivered to crisis response teams. In this paper, we present a new multimodal fusion method that leverages both images and texts as input. In particular, we introduce a cross-attention module that can filter uninformative and misleading components from weak modalities on a sample by sample basis. In addition, we employ a multimodal graph-based approach to stochastically transition between embeddings of different multimodal pairs during training to better regularize the learning process as well as dealing with limited training data by constructing new matched pairs from different samples. We show that our method outperforms the unimodal approaches and strong multimodal baselines by a large margin on three crisis-related tasks.


A Survey on Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Edge intelligence refers to a set of connected systems and devices for data collection, caching, processing, and analysis in locations close to where data is captured based on artificial intelligence. The aim of edge intelligence is to enhance the quality and speed of data processing and protect the privacy and security of the data. Although recently emerged, spanning the period from 2011 to now, this field of research has shown explosive growth over the past five years. In this paper, we present a thorough and comprehensive survey on the literature surrounding edge intelligence. We first identify four fundamental components of edge intelligence, namely edge caching, edge training, edge inference, and edge offloading, based on theoretical and practical results pertaining to proposed and deployed systems. We then aim for a systematic classification of the state of the solutions by examining research results and observations for each of the four components and present a taxonomy that includes practical problems, adopted techniques, and application goals. For each category, we elaborate, compare and analyse the literature from the perspectives of adopted techniques, objectives, performance, advantages and drawbacks, etc. This survey article provides a comprehensive introduction to edge intelligence and its application areas. In addition, we summarise the development of the emerging research field and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open issues and possible theoretical and technical solutions.


Vulnerabilities of Connectionist AI Applications: Evaluation and Defence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This article deals with the IT security of connectionist artificial intelligence (AI) applications, focusing on threats to integrity, one of the three IT security goals. Such threats are for instance most relevant in prominent AI computer vision applications. In order to present a holistic view on the IT security goal integrity, many additional aspects such as interpretability, robustness and documentation are taken into account. A comprehensive list of threats and possible mitigations is presented by reviewing the state-of-the-art literature. AI-specific vulnerabilities such as adversarial attacks and poisoning attacks as well as their AI-specific root causes are discussed in detail. Additionally and in contrast to former reviews, the whole AI supply chain is analysed with respect to vulnerabilities, including the planning, data acquisition, training, evaluation and operation phases. The discussion of mitigations is likewise not restricted to the level of the AI system itself but rather advocates viewing AI systems in the context of their supply chains and their embeddings in larger IT infrastructures and hardware devices. Based on this and the observation that adaptive attackers may circumvent any single published AI-specific defence to date, the article concludes that single protective measures are not sufficient but rather multiple measures on different levels have to be combined to achieve a minimum level of IT security for AI applications.


Health State Estimation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.


Exploiting Human Social Cognition for the Detection of Fake and Fraudulent Faces via Memory Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Advances in computer vision have brought us to the point where we have the ability to synthesise realistic fake content. Such approaches are seen as a source of disinformation and mistrust, and pose serious concerns to governments around the world. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) demonstrate encouraging results when detecting fake images that arise from the specific type of manipulation they are trained on. However, this success has not transitioned to unseen manipulation types, resulting in a significant gap in the line-of-defense. We propose a Hierarchical Memory Network (HMN) architecture, which is able to successfully detect faked faces by utilising knowledge stored in neural memories as well as visual cues to reason about the perceived face and anticipate its future semantic embeddings. This renders a generalisable face tampering detection framework. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed approach achieves superior performance for fake and fraudulent face detection compared to the state-of-the-art.


Response to NITRD, NCO, NSF Request for Information on "Update to the 2016 National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategic Plan"

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a response to the 2018 Request for Information (RFI) from the NITRD, NCO, NSF regarding the "Update to the 2016 National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategic Plan." Through this document, we provide a response to the question of whether and how the National Artificial Intelligence Research and Development Strategic Plan (NAIRDSP) should be updated from the perspective of Fermilab, America's premier national laboratory for High Energy Physics (HEP). We believe the NAIRDSP should be extended in light of the rapid pace of development and innovation in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) since 2016, and present our recommendations below. AI has profoundly impacted many areas of human life, promising to dramatically reshape society --- e.g., economy, education, science --- in the coming years. We are still early in this process. It is critical to invest now in this technology to ensure it is safe and deployed ethically. Science and society both have a strong need for accuracy, efficiency, transparency, and accountability in algorithms, making investments in scientific AI particularly valuable. Thus far the US has been a leader in AI technologies, and we believe as a national Laboratory it is crucial to help maintain and extend this leadership. Moreover, investments in AI will be important for maintaining US leadership in the physical sciences.


A New Defense Against Adversarial Images: Turning a Weakness into a Strength

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Natural images are virtually surrounded by low-density misclassified regions that can be efficiently discovered by gradient-guided search --- enabling the generation of adversarial images. While many techniques for detecting these attacks have been proposed, they are easily bypassed when the adversary has full knowledge of the detection mechanism and adapts the attack strategy accordingly. In this paper, we adopt a novel perspective and regard the omnipresence of adversarial perturbations as a strength rather than a weakness. We postulate that if an image has been tampered with, these adversarial directions either become harder to find with gradient methods or have substantially higher density than for natural images. We develop a practical test for this signature characteristic to successfully detect adversarial attacks, achieving unprecedented accuracy under the white-box setting where the adversary is given full knowledge of our detection mechanism.


FDA: Feature Disruptive Attack

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Though Deep Neural Networks (DNN) show excellent performance across various computer vision tasks, several works show their vulnerability to adversarial samples, i.e., image samples with imperceptible noise engineered to manipulate the network's prediction. Adversarial sample generation methods range from simple to complex optimization techniques. Majority of these methods generate adversaries through optimization objectives that are tied to the pre-softmax or softmax output of the network. In this work we, (i) show the drawbacks of such attacks, (ii) propose two new evaluation metrics: Old Label New Rank (OLNR) and New Label Old Rank (NLOR) in order to quantify the extent of damage made by an attack, and (iii) propose a new adversarial attack FDA: Feature Disruptive Attack, to address the drawbacks of existing attacks. FDA works by generating image perturbation that disrupt features at each layer of the network and causes deep-features to be highly corrupt. This allows FDA adversaries to severely reduce the performance of deep networks. W e experimentally validate that FDA generates stronger adversaries than other state-of-the-art methods for image classification, even in the presence of various defense measures. More importantly, we show that FDA disrupts feature-representation based tasks even without access to the task-specific network or methodology.


Adversarial point perturbations on 3D objects

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The importance of training robust neural network grows as 3D data is increasingly utilized in deep learning for vision tasks, like autonomous driving. We examine this problem from the perspective of the attacker, which is necessary in understanding how neural networks can be exploited, and thus defended. More specifically, we propose adversarial attacks based on solving different optimization problems, like minimizing the perceptibility of our generated adversarial examples, or maintaining a uniform density distribution of points across the adversarial object surfaces. Our four proposed algorithms for attacking 3D point cloud classification are all highly successful on existing neural networks, and we find that some of them are even effective against previously proposed point removal defenses.


Visualizing Image Content to Explain Novel Image Discovery

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The initial analysis of any large data set can be divided into two phases: (1) the identification of common trends or patterns and (2) the identification of anomalies or outliers that deviate from those trends. We focus on the goal of detecting observations with novel content, which can alert us to artifacts in the data set or, potentially, the discovery of previously unknown phenomena. To aid in interpreting and diagnosing the novel aspect of these selected observations, we recommend the use of novelty detection methods that generate explanations. In the context of large image data sets, these explanations should highlight what aspect of a given image is new (color, shape, texture, content) in a human-comprehensible form. We propose DEMUD-VIS, the first method for providing visual explanations of novel image content by employing a convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract image features, a method that uses reconstruction error to detect novel content, and an up-convolutional network to convert CNN feature representations back into image space. We demonstrate this approach on diverse images from ImageNet, freshwater streams, and the surface of Mars.