Anomaly detection for time-series data has been an important research field for a long time. Seminal work on anomaly detection methods has been focussing on statistical approaches. In recent years an increasing number of machine learning algorithms have been developed to detect anomalies on time-series. Subsequently, researchers tried to improve these techniques using (deep) neural networks. In the light of the increasing number of anomaly detection methods, the body of research lacks a broad comparative evaluation of statistical, machine learning and deep learning methods. This paper studies 20 univariate anomaly detection methods from the all three categories. The evaluation is conducted on publicly available datasets, which serve as benchmarks for time-series anomaly detection. By analyzing the accuracy of each method as well as the computation time of the algorithms, we provide a thorough insight about the performance of these anomaly detection approaches, alongside some general notion of which method is suited for a certain type of data.
This research paper explores the performance of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms and techniques that can be used for financial asset price forecasting. The prediction and forecasting of asset prices and returns remains one of the most challenging and exciting problems for quantitative finance and practitioners alike. The massive increase in data generated and captured in recent years presents an opportunity to leverage Machine Learning algorithms. This study directly compares and contrasts state-of-the-art implementations of modern Machine Learning algorithms on high performance computing (HPC) infrastructures versus the traditional and highly popular Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) on U.S equities data. The implemented Machine Learning models - trained on time series data for an entire stock universe (in addition to exogenous macroeconomic variables) significantly outperform the CAPM on out-of-sample (OOS) test data.
This paper addresses the difficulty of forecasting multiple financial time series (TS) conjointly using deep neural networks (DNN). We investigate whether DNN-based models could forecast these TS more efficiently by learning their representation directly. To this end, we make use of the dynamic factor graph (DFG) from that we enhance by proposing a novel variable-length attention-based mechanism to render it memory-augmented. Using this mechanism, we propose an unsupervised DNN architecture for multivariate TS forecasting that allows to learn and take advantage of the relationships between these TS. We test our model on two datasets covering 19 years of investment funds activities. Our experimental results show that our proposed approach outperforms significantly typical DNN-based and statistical models at forecasting their 21-day price trajectory.
School of the Built Environment, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, OX3 0BP, UK. Abstract: This paper provides the state of the art of data science in economics. Through a novel taxonomy of applications and methods advances in data science are investigated. The data science advances are investigated in three individual classes of deep learning models, ensemble models, and hybrid models. Application domains include stock market, marketing, E-commerce, corporate banking, and cryptocurrency. Prisma method, a systematic literature review methodology is used to ensure the quality of the survey. The findings revealed that the trends are on advancement of hybrid models as more than 51% of the reviewed articles applied hybrid model. On the other hand, it is found that based on the RMSE accuracy metric, hybrid models had higher prediction accuracy than other algorithms. While it is expected the trends go toward the advancements of deep learning models. LSDL Large-Scale Deep Learning LSTM Long Short-Term Memory LWDNN List-Wise Deep Neural Network MACN Multi-Agent Collaborated Network MB-LSTM Multivariate Bidirectional LSTM MDNN Multilayer Deep Neural Network MFNN Multi-Filters Neural Network MLP Multiple Layer Perceptron MLP Multi-Layer Perceptron NNRE Neural Network Regression Ensemble O-LSRM Optimal Long Short-Term Memory PCA Principal Component Analysis pSVM Proportion Support Vector Machines RBFNN Radial Basis Function Neural Network RBM Restricted Boltzmann Machine REP Reduced Error Pruning RF Random Forest RFR Random Forest Regression RNN Recurrent Neural Network SAE Stacked Autoencoders SLR Stepwise Linear Regressions SN-CFM Similarity, Neighborhood-Based Collaborative Filtering Model STI Stock Technical Indicators SVM Support Vector Machine SVR Support Vector Regression SVRE Support Vector Regression Ensemble, TDFA Time-Driven Feature-Aware TS-GRU Two-Stream GRU WA Wavelet Analysis WT Wavelet Transforms 1. Introduction Application of data science in different disciplines is exponentially increasing. Because data science has had tremendous progresses in analysis and use of data. Like other disciplines, economics has benefited from the advancements of data science. Advancements of data science in economics have been progressive and have recorded promising results in the literature.
This paper plays a part in two branches of the asset pricing literature, the multi-factor literature built on the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) from Ross (1976)  and the Inter-temporal Capital Asset Pricing Model (ICAPM) from Merton (1973)  and to the growing literature related to the low-risk anomaly. First, we use the Adaptive Multi-Factor (AMF) model framework developed in Zhu et al. (2018)  in which both the APT and ICAPM are special cases under weaker conditions with three main added benefits: 1) It allows for a large number of risk factors to explain returns even though empirically a smaller subset of them is needed to explain returns, 2) The set of risk factors is different for different securities, and 3) The risk factors are Exchange Traded Funds (ETF) which are tradeable instruments. Second, the low-risk anomaly is an empirical asset pricing observation in which stocks with lower risk yield higher returns than stocks with higher risk. The two main measures for characterising risk in this context are volatility of returns and β derived from the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). Therefore, when mentioning the low-risk anomaly, we are referring to the low-volatility and the low-beta anomaly interchangeably.
Due to the massive size of the neural network models and training datasets used in machine learning today, it is imperative to distribute stochastic gradient descent (SGD) by splitting up tasks such as gradient evaluation across multiple worker nodes. However, running distributed SGD can be prohibitively expensive because it may require specialized computing resources such as GPUs for extended periods of time. We propose cost-effective strategies to exploit volatile cloud instances that are cheaper than standard instances, but may be interrupted by higher priority workloads. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to quantify how variations in the number of active worker nodes (as a result of preemption) affects SGD convergence and the time to train the model. By understanding these trade-offs between preemption probability of the instances, accuracy, and training time, we are able to derive practical strategies for configuring distributed SGD jobs on volatile instances such as Amazon EC2 spot instances and other preemptible cloud instances. Experimental results show that our strategies achieve good training performance at substantially lower cost.
More recently there has been an interest in density forecasts for the hourly prices, motivated by considerations of risk management. See [1,2] for extensive reviews. In this paper, we provide a new formulation with a focus upon price spreads, and specifically, we forecast the density functions for the intraday spreads in the day-ahead prices. The optimal operation of storage facilities, e.g., batteries and electric vehicles, or load shifting programmes, e.g., demand-side management, over daily cycles depends upon these spreads if they are operated as merchants, arbitraging buying and selling from the wholesale market. Furthermore, if the risk is a consideration, analysis of the mean differences in price levels would be inadequate, and we therefore directly estimate the density functions of all hourly spreads in prices at the day-ahead stage. These forecasts ahead of the day-ahead auctions would be needed to help traders decide whether they want to be buyers or sellers at each hour and thereby optimise their bids and offers. Our specification, estimation and forecasting of these arbitrage spreads are new and computationally-intensive. Based upon day-ahead forecasts for the drivers of electricity prices, such as demand, wind and solar production, gas and coal prices, forecasts for electricity price levels have been proposed from various methods, e.g., [3-6] and some for price densities [1,7], but apparently no methods have been developed specifically for forecasting intraday spread densities. Until recently storage assets, such as pumped hydro storage, would regularly store energy at night and discharge at the daily peak demand periods, which were quite predictable. However with the penetration of wind and especially solar generating facilities, the peak and trough hours in prices move around the day and in sunny locations with substantial solar energy, e.g., California, the lowest prices may often be in the middle of the day .
We present a method for financial time series forecasting using representation learning techniques. Recent progress on deep autoregressive models has shown their ability to capture long-term dependencies of the sequence data. However, the shortage of available financial data for training will make the deep models susceptible to the overfitting problem. In this paper, we propose a neural-network-powered conditional mutual information (CMI) estimator for learning representations for the forecasting task. Specifically, we first train an encoder to maximize the mutual information between the latent variables and the label information conditioned on the encoded observed variables. Then the features extracted from the trained encoder are used to learn a subsequent logistic regression model for predicting time series movements. Our proposed estimator transforms the CMI maximization problem to a classification problem whether two encoded representations are sampled from the same class or not. This is equivalent to perform pairwise comparisons of the training datapoints, and thus, improves the generalization ability of the deep autoregressive model. Empirical experiments indicate that our proposed method has the potential to advance the state-of-the-art performance.
Time series data is all around us; some examples are the weather, human behavioral patterns as consumers and members of society, and financial data. In this course, you'll learn how to calculate technical indicators from historical stock data, and how to create features and targets out of the historical stock data. You'll understand how to prepare our features for linear models, xgboost models, and neural network models. We will then use linear models, decision trees, random forests, and neural networks to predict the future price of stocks in the US markets. You will also learn how to evaluate the performance of the various models we train in order to optimize them, so our predictions have enough accuracy to make a stock trading strategy profitable.
We introduce a random forest approach to enable spreads' prediction in the primary catastrophe bond market. We investigate whether all information provided to investors in the offering circular prior to a new issuance is equally important in predicting its spread. The whole population of non-life catastrophe bonds issued from December 2009 to May 2018 is used. The random forest shows an impressive predictive power on unseen primary catastrophe bond data explaining 93% of the total variability. For comparison, linear regression, our benchmark model, has inferior predictive performance explaining only 47% of the total variability. All details provided in the offering circular are predictive of spread but in a varying degree. The stability of the results is studied. The usage of random forest can speed up investment decisions in the catastrophe bond industry.