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Opportunities of a Machine Learning-based Decision Support System for Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Rehabilitation assessment is critical to determine an adequate intervention for a patient. However, the current practices of assessment mainly rely on therapist's experience, and assessment is infrequently executed due to the limited availability of a therapist. In this paper, we identified the needs of therapists to assess patient's functional abilities (e.g. alternative perspective on assessment with quantitative information on patient's exercise motions). As a result, we developed an intelligent decision support system that can identify salient features of assessment using reinforcement learning to assess the quality of motion and summarize patient specific analysis. We evaluated this system with seven therapists using the dataset from 15 patient performing three exercises. The evaluation demonstrates that our system is preferred over a traditional system without analysis while presenting more useful information and significantly increasing the agreement over therapists' evaluation from 0.6600 to 0.7108 F1-scores ($p <0.05$). We discuss the importance of presenting contextually relevant and salient information and adaptation to develop a human and machine collaborative decision making system.


A Survey on Causal Inference

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Causal inference is a critical research topic across many domains, such as statistics, computer science, education, public policy and economics, for decades. Nowadays, estimating causal effect from observational data has become an appealing research direction owing to the large amount of available data and low budget requirement, compared with randomized controlled trials. Embraced with the rapidly developed machine learning area, various causal effect estimation methods for observational data have sprung up. In this survey, we provide a comprehensive review of causal inference methods under the potential outcome framework, one of the well known causal inference framework. The methods are divided into two categories depending on whether they require all three assumptions of the potential outcome framework or not. For each category, both the traditional statistical methods and the recent machine learning enhanced methods are discussed and compared. The plausible applications of these methods are also presented, including the applications in advertising, recommendation, medicine and so on. Moreover, the commonly used benchmark datasets as well as the open-source codes are also summarized, which facilitate researchers and practitioners to explore, evaluate and apply the causal inference methods.


Artificial Intelligence for Social Good: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Its impact is drastic and real: Youtube's AIdriven recommendation system would present sports videos for days if one happens to watch a live baseball game on the platform [1]; email writing becomes much faster with machine learning (ML) based auto-completion [2]; many businesses have adopted natural language processing based chatbots as part of their customer services [3]. AI has also greatly advanced human capabilities in complex decision-making processes ranging from determining how to allocate security resources to protect airports [4] to games such as poker [5] and Go [6]. All such tangible and stunning progress suggests that an "AI summer" is happening. As some put it, "AI is the new electricity" [7]. Meanwhile, in the past decade, an emerging theme in the AI research community is the so-called "AI for social good" (AI4SG): researchers aim at developing AI methods and tools to address problems at the societal level and improve the wellbeing of the society.


Causality for Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graphical causal inference as pioneered by Judea Pearl arose from research on artificial intelligence (AI), and for a long time had little connection to the field of machine learning. This article discusses where links have been and should be established, introducing key concepts along the way. It argues that the hard open problems of machine learning and AI are intrinsically related to causality, and explains how the field is beginning to understand them.


Multi-Agent Reinforcement Learning: A Selective Overview of Theories and Algorithms

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent years have witnessed significant advances in reinforcement learning (RL), which has registered great success in solving various sequential decision-making problems in machine learning. Most of the successful RL applications, e.g., the games of Go and Poker, robotics, and autonomous driving, involve the participation of more than one single agent, which naturally fall into the realm of multi-agent RL (MARL), a domain with a relatively long history, and has recently re-emerged due to advances in single-agent RL techniques. Though empirically successful, theoretical foundations for MARL are relatively lacking in the literature. In this chapter, we provide a selective overview of MARL, with focus on algorithms backed by theoretical analysis. More specifically, we review the theoretical results of MARL algorithms mainly within two representative frameworks, Markov/stochastic games and extensive-form games, in accordance with the types of tasks they address, i.e., fully cooperative, fully competitive, and a mix of the two. We also introduce several significant but challenging applications of these algorithms. Orthogonal to the existing reviews on MARL, we highlight several new angles and taxonomies of MARL theory, including learning in extensive-form games, decentralized MARL with networked agents, MARL in the mean-field regime, (non-)convergence of policy-based methods for learning in games, etc. Some of the new angles extrapolate from our own research endeavors and interests. Our overall goal with this chapter is, beyond providing an assessment of the current state of the field on the mark, to identify fruitful future research directions on theoretical studies of MARL. We expect this chapter to serve as continuing stimulus for researchers interested in working on this exciting while challenging topic.


Adversarial Examples in Modern Machine Learning: A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recent research has found that many families of machine learning models are vulnerable to adversarial examples: inputs that are specifically designed to cause the target model to produce erroneous outputs. In this survey, we focus on machine learning models in the visual domain, where methods for generating and detecting such examples have been most extensively studied. We explore a variety of adversarial attack methods that apply to image-space content, real world adversarial attacks, adversarial defenses, and the transferability property of adversarial examples. We also discuss strengths and weaknesses of various methods of adversarial attack and defense. Our aim is to provide an extensive coverage of the field, furnishing the reader with an intuitive understanding of the mechanics of adversarial attack and defense mechanisms and enlarging the community of researchers studying this fundamental set of problems.


Autonomous Industrial Management via Reinforcement Learning: Self-Learning Agents for Decision-Making -- A Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Industry has always been in the pursuit of becoming more economically efficient and the current focus has been to reduce human labour using modern technologies. Even with cutting edge technologies, which range from packaging robots to AI for fault detection, there is still some ambiguity on the aims of some new systems, namely, whether they are automated or autonomous. In this paper we indicate the distinctions between automated and autonomous system as well as review the current literature and identify the core challenges for creating learning mechanisms of autonomous agents. We discuss using different types of extended realities, such as digital twins, to train reinforcement learning agents to learn specific tasks through generalization. Once generalization is achieved, we discuss how these can be used to develop self-learning agents. We then introduce self-play scenarios and how they can be used to teach self-learning agents through a supportive environment which focuses on how the agents can adapt to different real-world environments.


Flow: A Modular Learning Framework for Autonomy in Traffic

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The rapid development of autonomous vehicles (AVs) holds vast potential for transportation systems through improved safety, efficiency, and access to mobility. However, due to numerous technical, political, and human factors challenges, new methodologies are needed to design vehicles and transportation systems for these positive outcomes. This article tackles important technical challenges arising from the partial adoption of autonomy (hence termed mixed autonomy, to involve both AVs and human-driven vehicles): partial control, partial observation, complex multi-vehicle interactions, and the sheer variety of traffic settings represented by real-world networks. To enable the study of the full diversity of traffic settings, we first propose to decompose traffic control tasks into modules, which may be configured and composed to create new control tasks of interest. These modules include salient aspects of traffic control tasks: networks, actors, control laws, metrics, initialization, and additional dynamics. Second, we study the potential of model-free deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) methods to address the complexity of traffic dynamics. The resulting modular learning framework is called Flow. Using Flow, we create and study a variety of mixed-autonomy settings, including single-lane, multi-lane, and intersection traffic. In all cases, the learned control law exceeds human driving performance (measured by system-level velocity) by at least 40% with only 5-10% adoption of AVs. In the case of partially-observed single-lane traffic, we show that a low-parameter neural network control law can eliminate commonly observed stop-and-go traffic. In particular, the control laws surpass all known model-based controllers, achieving near-optimal performance across a wide spectrum of vehicle densities (even with a memoryless control law) and generalizing to out-of-distribution vehicle densities.


Admiring the Great Mountain: A Celebration Special Issue in Honor of Stephen Grossbergs 80th Birthday

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This editorial summarizes selected key contributions of Prof. Stephen Grossberg and describes the papers in this 80th birthday special issue in his honor. His productivity, creativity, and vision would each be enough to mark a scientist of the first caliber. In combination, they have resulted in contributions that have changed the entire discipline of neural networks. Grossberg has been tremendously influential in engineering, dynamical systems, and artificial intelligence as well. Indeed, he has been one of the most important mentors and role models in my career, and has done so with extraordinary generosity and encouragement. All authors in this special issue have taken great pleasure in hereby commemorating his extraordinary career and contributions.


A 20-Year Community Roadmap for Artificial Intelligence Research in the US

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Decades of research in artificial intelligence (AI) have produced formidable technologies that are providing immense benefit to industry, government, and society. AI systems can now translate across multiple languages, identify objects in images and video, streamline manufacturing processes, and control cars. The deployment of AI systems has not only created a trillion-dollar industry that is projected to quadruple in three years, but has also exposed the need to make AI systems fair, explainable, trustworthy, and secure. Future AI systems will rightfully be expected to reason effectively about the world in which they (and people) operate, handling complex tasks and responsibilities effectively and ethically, engaging in meaningful communication, and improving their awareness through experience. Achieving the full potential of AI technologies poses research challenges that require a radical transformation of the AI research enterprise, facilitated by significant and sustained investment. These are the major recommendations of a recent community effort coordinated by the Computing Community Consortium and the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence to formulate a Roadmap for AI research and development over the next two decades.