We propose a trajectory planning and control theory for continuous movements such as connected cursive handwriting and continuous natural speech. Its hardware is based on our previously proposed forward-inverse-relaxation neural network (Wada & Kawato, 1993). Computationally, its optimization principle is the minimum torquechange criterion.Regarding the representation level, hard constraints satisfied by a trajectory are represented as a set of via-points extracted from a handwritten character. Accordingly, we propose a via-point estimation algorithm that estimates via-points by repeating the trajectory formation of a character and the via-point extraction from the character. In experiments, good quantitative agreement is found between human handwriting data and the trajectories generated by the theory. Finally, we propose a recognition schema based on the movement generation. We show a result in which the recognition schema is applied to the handwritten character recognition and can be extended to the phoneme timing estimation of natural speech. 1 INTRODUCTION In reaching movements, trajectory formation is an ill-posed problem because the hand can move along an infinite number of possible trajectories from the starting to the target point.