While there are lots of things that artificial intelligence can't do yet--science being one of them--neural networks are proving themselves increasingly adept at a huge variety of pattern recognition tasks. These tasks can range anywhere from recognizing specific faces in photos to identifying specific patterns of particle decays in physics. Right now, neural networks are typically run on regular computers. Unfortunately, those networks are a poor architectural match; neurons combine both memory and calculations into a single unit, while our computers keep those functions separate. For this reason, some companies are exploring dedicated neural network chips.