Universal Backpropagation in 15 lines of code - Ray Born - Medium

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Backpropagation is the core of today's deep learning applications. If you've dabbled with deep learning there's a good chance you're aware of the concept. If you've ever implemented backpropagation manually, you're probably very grateful that deep learning libraries automatically do it for you. Implementing backprop by hand is arduous, yet the concept behind general backpropagation is very simple. Did you know that the eager execution-restricted backprop is almost trivial?