Minds and machines: The art of forecasting in the age of artificial intelligence

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Two of today's major business and intellectual trends offer complementary insights about the challenge of making forecasts in a complex and rapidly changing world. Forty years of behavioral science research into the psychology of probabilistic reasoning have revealed the surprising extent to which people routinely base judgments and forecasts on systematically biased mental heuristics rather than careful assessments of evidence. These findings have fundamental implications for decision making, ranging from the quotidian (scouting baseball players and underwriting insurance contracts) to the strategic (estimating the time, expense, and likely success of a project or business initiative) to the existential (estimating security and terrorism risks). The bottom line: Unaided judgment is an unreliable guide to action. Consider psychologist Philip Tetlock's celebrated multiyear study concluding that even top journalists, historians, and political experts do little better than random chance at forecasting such political events as revolutions and regime changes.1 The second trend is the increasing ubiquity of data-driven decision making and artificial intelligence applications. Once again, an important lesson comes from behavioral science: A body of research dating back to the 1950s has established that even simple predictive models outperform human experts' ability to make predictions and forecasts. This implies that judiciously constructed predictive models can augment human intelligence by helping humans avoid common cognitive traps.