ANYONE phoning a customer service department is likely to be warned that "your call may be recorded for training purposes". It sounds banal until you realise that the trainee might be an artificially intelligent voice-recognition system that requires real-world data to learn its trade. Now imagine visiting the doctor and being told "your medical records may be used for training purposes". Again, it sounds innocuous – but what if the entity being trained is not a human student but a diagnostic algorithm? The use of AI in medicine is in its infancy, but looks set to become a routine part of healthcare (see "Artificial Intelligence ushers in the era of superhuman doctors").