Alison McCook from Retraction Watch interviewed Eric Loken and me regarding our recent article, "Measurement error and the replication crisis." We talked about why traditional statistics are often counterproductive to research in the human sciences. Retraction Watch: Your article focuses on the "noise" that's present in research studies. What is "noise" and how is it created during an experiment? Andrew Gelman: Noise is random error that interferes with our ability to observe a clear signal.