Defending Against Adversarial Examples with K-Nearest Neighbor


Robustness is an increasingly important property of machine learning models as they become more and more prevalent. We propose a defense against adversarial examples based on a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) on the intermediate activation of neural networks. With our models, the mean perturbation norm required to fool our MNIST model is 3.07 and 2.30 on CIFAR-10. Additionally, we propose a simple certifiable lower bound on the l2-norm of the adversarial perturbation using a more specific version of our scheme, a 1-NN on representations learned by a Lipschitz network. Our model provides a nontrivial average lower bound of the perturbation norm, comparable to other schemes on MNIST with similar clean accuracy.