According to an unofficial consensus, the birth of artificial intelligence as an independent research project can be dated to the summer of 1956, when John McCarthy at Dartmouth College, where he belonged to the Mathematical Department, was able to persuade the Rockefeller Foundation to finance an investigation " The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it". In addition to McCarthy (who was a professor at Stanford University until 2000 and is responsible for the coining of the term "artificial intelligence"), several other participants took part in the historical workshop at Dartmouth: Marvin Minsky (former professor at Stanford University), Claude Shannon (inventor of information theory); Herbert Simon (Nobel Prize winner in economics); Arthur Samuel (developer of the first chess computer program at world champion level); furthermore half a dozen experts from science and industry, who dreamed that it might be possible to produce a machine for coping with human tasks, which, according to the previous opinion, require intelligence. The Manifesto of Dartmouth (written at the dawn of the AI age) is both irritating and blurred. It is not clear whether the conference participants believed that one-day, machines would think or behave as if they could imagine. Both possible interpretations allow the word "simulate."