He married Patricia Enderson in 1950, and they raised five children. He received his Ph.D. in psychology in 1954 from the University of Southern California. His dissertation was entitled "The Prediction of Accident Rates from Basic Design Features of USAF Aircraft." His first job after graduation was with Douglas Aircraft Corporation in Santa Monica, California, where he developed computerized methods for statistical forecasting of labor costs for building newly designed airplanes. He began work in 1955 at RAND Corporation and continued in 1957 at its offshoot, the System Development Corporation (SDC), also in Santa Monica, where he was head of the Language Processing Research Program until 1968.