Performance Metrics (Error Measures) in Machine Learning Regression, Forecasting and Prognostics: Properties and Typology

Botchkarev, Alexei

arXiv.org Machine Learning 

Performance metrics (error measures) are vital components of the evaluation frameworks in various fields. The intention of this study was to overview of a variety of performance metrics and approaches to their classification. The main goal of the study was to develop a typology that will help to improve our knowledge and understanding of metrics and facilitate their selection in machine learning regression, forecasting and prognostics. Based on the analysis of the structure of numerous performance metrics, we propose a framework of metrics which includes four (4) categories: primary metrics, extended metrics, composite metrics, and hybrid sets of metrics. The paper identified three (3) key components (dimensions) that determine the structure and properties of primary metrics: method of determining point distance, method of normalization, method of aggregation of point distances over a data set.