A real-time iterative machine learning approach for temperature profile prediction in additive manufacturing processes

Paul, Arindam, Mozaffar, Mojtaba, Yang, Zijiang, Liao, Wei-keng, Choudhary, Alok, Cao, Jian, Agrawal, Ankit

arXiv.org Machine Learning 

--Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a manufacturing paradigm that builds three-dimensional objects from a computer-aided design model by successively adding material layer by layer . AM has become very popular in the past decade due to its utility for fast prototyping such as 3D printing as well as manufacturing functional parts with complex geometries using processes such as laser metal deposition that would be difficult to create using traditional machining. As the process for creating an intricate part for an expensive metal such as Titanium is prohibitive with respect to cost, computational models are used to simulate the behavior of AM processes before the experimental run. However, as the simulations are computationally costly and time-consuming for predicting multiscale multi-physics phenomena in AM, physics-informed data-driven machine-learning systems for predicting the behavior of AM processes are immensely beneficial. Such models accelerate not only multiscale simulation tools but also empower real-time control systems using in-situ data. In this paper, we design and develop essential components of a scientific framework for developing a data-driven model-based real-time control system. Finite element methods are employed for solving time-dependent heat equations and developing the database. The proposed framework uses extremely randomized trees - an ensemble of bagged decision trees as the regression algorithm iteratively using temperatures of prior voxels and laser information as inputs to predict temperatures of subsequent voxels. The models achieve mean absolute percentage errors below 1% for predicting temperature profiles for AM processes. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a modern manufacturing approach in which digital 3D design data is used to build parts by sequentially depositing layers of materials [1]. AM techniques are becoming very popular compared to traditional approaches because of their success in building complicated designs, fast prototyping, and low-volume or one-of-a-kind productions across many industries. Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) [2] is an AM technology where various materials such as steel or Titanium are used to develop the finished product.