End-to-end Driving Deploying through Uncertainty-Aware Imitation Learning and Stochastic Visual Domain Adaptation

Tai, Lei, Yun, Peng, Chen, Yuying, Liu, Congcong, Ye, Haoyang, Liu, Ming

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence 

End-to-end visual-based imitation learning has been widely applied in autonomous driving. When deploying the trained visual-based driving policy, a deterministic command is usually directly applied without considering the uncertainty of the input data. Such kind of policies may bring dramatical damage when applied in the real world. In this paper, we follow the recent real-to-sim pipeline by translating the testing world image back to the training domain when using the trained policy. In the translating process, a stochastic generator is used to generate various images stylized under the training domain randomly or directionally. Based on those translated images, the trained uncertainty-aware imitation learning policy would output both the predicted action and the data uncertainty motivated by the aleatoric loss function. Through the uncertainty-aware imitation learning policy, we can easily choose the safest one with the lowest uncertainty among the generated images. Experiments in the Carla navigation benchmark show that our strategy outperforms previous methods, especially in dynamic environments.

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