Exploring Unsupervised Pretraining and Sentence Structure Modelling for Winograd Schema Challenge

Ruan, Yu-Ping, Zhu, Xiaodan, Ling, Zhen-Hua, Shi, Zhan, Liu, Quan, Wei, Si

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence 

Winograd Schema Challenge (WSC) was proposed as an AI-hard problem in testing computers' intelligence on common sense representation and reasoning. This paper presents the new state-of-theart on WSC, achieving an accuracy of 71.1%. We demonstrate that the leading performance benefits from jointly modelling sentence structures, utilizing knowledge learned from cutting-edge pretraining models, and performing fine-tuning. We conduct detailed analyses, showing that fine-tuning is critical for achieving the performance, but it helps more on the simpler associative problems. Modelling sentence dependency structures, however, consistently helps on the harder non-associative subset of WSC. Analysis also shows that larger fine-tuning datasets yield better performances, suggesting the potential benefit of future work on annotating more Winograd schema sentences.