The Ideological Turing Test, created by Bryan Caplan in 2011, is designed to test whether a partisan individual fully understands the political and ideological beliefs of those on the other side of the political sepctrum. If the judge was unable to accurately discern which answer or argument was written by which side, ie the Democrat posing as the Republican vs a Republican, then the Democrat would have successfully passed the Ideological Turing Test. If you can truly understand the point of view of a person across the other side the ideological spectrum, then you can begin to have a sensible discussion about the divide between you. When considered for the Ideological Turing Test, it poses the question, do you really need to truly understand an ideological argument to replicate it.
Futurist Maurice Conti says we've entered a new era where machines and humans partner to do what neither can do alone. He calls it the "Augmented Age." Maurice Conti is a designer and innovator. Currently, he is the Director of Applied Research and Innovation at Autodesk -- a 3-D design and engineering software company.
At the beginning of Luke Dormehl's Thinking Machines: The Quest for Artificial Intelligence and Where It's Taking Us Next, 'computers' are people whose actuarial jobs require them to perform complex calculations. By the end, the scientists he interviews are discussing a future in which computers may be a lot like people. Dormehl continues through early expert systems, early neural networks, the'AI winter', the recent renaissance of neural networks, and on to transhumanism, brain uploading, and the Singularity. If you've been following the development of artificial intelligence all along, Dormehl's book won't have much that's new for you.
"By 2029, computers will have human level intelligence," Kurzweil said in his interview. "That leads to computers having human intelligence, our putting them inside our brains, connecting them to the cloud, expanding who we are. Today we're using Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) to create telepathic links with robots, as well as each other, and developing systems such as the Neural Lace, and Smart Dust which it's hoped will be the biological-machine interfaces we need to realise all our dreams of mind melding with the Hive minds our new robo overlords. To those who view this new cybernetic utopia as more fantasy than future, he points out, as he has many times before, that there are people with computers in their brains today – Parkinson's patients – who, in some cases use them to help turn Parkinson's on and off.
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In the Turing Test, a human engages in a text-based chat with an entity it can't see. If that entity is a computer program and it can make the human believe he's talking to another human, it has passed the test. A 1960s Rogerian computer therapist program called ELIZA duped participants into believing they were chatting with an actual therapist, perhaps because it asked questions and unlike some human conversation partners, appeared as though it's listening. While some argue that ELIZA passed the Turing Test, it's evident from talking with ELIZA (you can try it yourself here) and similar chatbots that language processing and thinking are two entirely different abilities.
Budgets were slashed, plugs were pulled and students were advised by their teachers that researching neural networks was a bit like dating the loser in school: they'd never amount to anything and you'd just get hurt in the process. Researchers, particularly in the rival, more established field of symbolic AI, were perturbed by articles like the one Science magazine published in 1958 about neural nets, entitled "Human Brains Replaced?" Reading it today, the crazy thing is how accurate the article was: predicting machine learning capable of making decisions and translating languages. However, with an army of excitable journalists, eager VCs and perpetually optimistic computer scientists, it's not the kind of thing which can easily be lifted out of the field like a dodgy line of code.
Everyone who logs into our system knows that our health care chatbot Joy is not a person: Her avatar has blue skin, for starters. Would Baymax pass a Turing test? I think most people's frustration in dealing with a bad chatbot is the underlying NLP technology. Alexa would never pass a Turing test, but she delivers results, and that's what matters to me.