Treating the two terms as interchangeable or treating machine learning as a part of the AI landscape only complicates things. Typically, it is separated into techniques that have either a specific thing that they are looking to predict, which is called supervised machine learning, and classifying things, called unsupervised machine learning. AI refers to a very limited subset of methodological techniques, including neural networks or expert systems, that mimic cognitive systems of human intelligence. If you look on the machine learning Wikipedia page, the techniques used for typical AI applications are a subset of machine learning.
In the 1950s, Turing published a paper called "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" in which he proposed an empirical test that identifies an intelligent behavior "when there is no discernible difference between the conversation generated by the machine and that of an intelligent person." Many theorists have disputed the Turing Test as an acceptable means of proving artificial intelligence. Sleepwalkers' use of protolanguage (short, grammar-free utterances with referential meaning lacking syntax) may illustrate that the consciousness is a social adaptation and that other animals do not lack understanding or sensation, but that they lack language skills and therefore cannot reflect on their sensations and become self-aware. Can their minds be algorithmically simulated?
According to scientists and legal experts, responding to the bank's warning this November, there is now an urgent need for the development of intelligent algorithms to be put on the political agenda. Top of the agenda as far as Lightfoot is concerned is the economic impact if AI cuts large amounts of jobs and the incomes from people, how will they make a living and what will they do, a concern that Professor Toby Walsh, an expert in AI at Australia's University of New South Wales and a prominent campaigner against the use of AI in military weapons, says is justified and one that needs to be urgently considered. Though Professor Walsh and fellow AI expert Murray Shanahan, Professor of Cognitive Robotics at London's Imperial College were wary of calls for regulation of the sector, which they said, would inhibit research. According to Professor Walsh scientists working in AI have already started to exercise a degree of self-control over the exploitation of the discoveries being made in AI the areas that need to be focussed on are the ramifications of the technology.
"The most significant arousal-raising properties for aesthetics are novelty, surprisingness, complexity, ambiguity, and puzzlingness," say Elgammal and co. "Novelty refers to the degree a stimulus differs from what an observer has seen/experienced before. "Too little arousal potential is considered boring, and too much activates the aversion system, which results in negative response," say Elgammal and co. That has important implications for the way their generative adversarial network, or agent, is set up. "The agent's goal is to generate art with increased levels of arousal potential in a constrained way without activating the aversion system," they say. Some of the machine-generated images were produced by the creative adversarial network, but others were produced by the generative adversarial network that simply reproduces artistic styles it has learned.
The Ideological Turing Test, created by Bryan Caplan in 2011, is designed to test whether a partisan individual fully understands the political and ideological beliefs of those on the other side of the political sepctrum. If the judge was unable to accurately discern which answer or argument was written by which side, ie the Democrat posing as the Republican vs a Republican, then the Democrat would have successfully passed the Ideological Turing Test. If you can truly understand the point of view of a person across the other side the ideological spectrum, then you can begin to have a sensible discussion about the divide between you. When considered for the Ideological Turing Test, it poses the question, do you really need to truly understand an ideological argument to replicate it.
Futurist Maurice Conti says we've entered a new era where machines and humans partner to do what neither can do alone. He calls it the "Augmented Age." Maurice Conti is a designer and innovator. Currently, he is the Director of Applied Research and Innovation at Autodesk -- a 3-D design and engineering software company.
At the beginning of Luke Dormehl's Thinking Machines: The Quest for Artificial Intelligence and Where It's Taking Us Next, 'computers' are people whose actuarial jobs require them to perform complex calculations. By the end, the scientists he interviews are discussing a future in which computers may be a lot like people. Dormehl continues through early expert systems, early neural networks, the'AI winter', the recent renaissance of neural networks, and on to transhumanism, brain uploading, and the Singularity. If you've been following the development of artificial intelligence all along, Dormehl's book won't have much that's new for you.
"By 2029, computers will have human level intelligence," Kurzweil said in his interview. "That leads to computers having human intelligence, our putting them inside our brains, connecting them to the cloud, expanding who we are. Today we're using Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) to create telepathic links with robots, as well as each other, and developing systems such as the Neural Lace, and Smart Dust which it's hoped will be the biological-machine interfaces we need to realise all our dreams of mind melding with the Hive minds our new robo overlords. To those who view this new cybernetic utopia as more fantasy than future, he points out, as he has many times before, that there are people with computers in their brains today – Parkinson's patients – who, in some cases use them to help turn Parkinson's on and off.