History


a-journey-through-time-the-long-prehistory-of-artificial-intelligence

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According to Aristotle, while living things moved themselves at will, inanimate things moved according to their natures: heavy things, made of earth or water, descended, while light things, made of air or fire, ascended. Twenty years later, the French King Henri IV hired the Italian engineer Tomaso Francini to build him some waterworks for the royal palace at Saint Germain en Laye. In 1650, the German polymath Athanasius Kircher offered an early design of a hydraulic organ with automata, governed by a pinned cylinder and including a dancing skeleton. The designers of the automatic loom used automata and automatic musical instruments as their model; then Charles Babbage -- the English mathematician who designed the first mechanical computers during the 1830s, the Analytical and Difference Engines -- in turn used the automatic loom as his model.


The Future Internet I Want for Me, Myself and AI

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There is a growing expectation on the part of many stakeholders that AI and machine learning will fundamentally reshape the future of the Internet and society around it. Will AI replace human labour? The discussions at the OECD this week revolved around a specific issue: Will AI replace human labour? To this end, ISOC recently published a Policy Paper on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, introducing the fundamentals of the technology at hand and some of the key challenges it presents.


What do George Orwell and Winston Churchill have in common? A new book has the answer

Los Angeles Times

Churchill's political leanings were conservative; Orwell flirted with communism until he witnessed the betrayal of his Republican comrades by Soviet agents in the Spanish Civil War. Many books have been devoted to Churchill, including his six-volume memoir of World War II. Both blurred the line between soldier and journalist; Churchill in the Boer War, Orwell in the Spanish Civil War. "Animal Farm," a tale of power-hungry pigs who take over a farm after the human farmer flees, was such a devastating sendup of Soviet politics, Orwell had a hard time finding a publisher in left-leaning London.


A Brief History of AI – Cyber Tales – Medium

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At the end of the sixties, researchers realized that AI was indeed a tough field to manage, and the initial spark that brought the funding started dissipating. This phenomenon, which characterized AI along its all history, is commonly known as "AI effect", and is made of two parts: In the United States, the reason for DARPA to fund AI research was mainly due to the idea of creating a perfect machine translator, but two consecutive events wrecked that proposal, beginning what it is going to be called later on the first AI winter. In fact, the Automatic Language Processing Advisory Committee (ALPAC) report in the US in 1966, followed by the "Lighthill report" (1973), assessed the feasibility of AI given the current developments and concluded negatively about the possibility of creating a machine that could learn or be considered intelligent. These two reports, jointly with the limited data available to feed the algorithms, as well as the scarce computational power of the engines of that period, made the field collapsing and AI fell into disgrace for the entire decade.


What do George Orwell and Winston Churchill have in common? A new book has the answer

Los Angeles Times

Churchill's political leanings were conservative; Orwell flirted with communism until he witnessed the betrayal of his Republican comrades by Soviet agents in the Spanish Civil War. Many books have been devoted to Churchill, including his six-volume memoir of World War II. Both blurred the line between soldier and journalist; Churchill in the Boer War, Orwell in the Spanish Civil War. "Animal Farm," a tale of power-hungry pigs who take over a farm after the human farmer flees, was such a devastating sendup of Soviet politics, Orwell had a hard time finding a publisher in left-leaning London.


Siri, Who Is Terry Winograd?

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"It runs, it has AI [artificial intelligence]," says Winograd, who 20-odd years ago advised another graduate student on the then nascent field of searching the World Wide Web. Among them are Silicon Valley aristocrats such as Google cofounder Larry Page and LinkedIn founder Reid Hoffman. In a remarkably fruitful career that has spanned four decades, the "deserter" founded Stanford University's graduate program in human–computer interaction, created programs in symbolic systems and liberation technology, and, with David Kelley of IDEO and colleagues in several departments of the engineering and business schools, cofounded the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design at Stanford, better known as the d.school. After graduating in 1966, Winograd received a Fulbright scholarship and pursued his other interest, language, earning a master's degree in linguistics at University College London.


What do cognitive science and swarm intelligence have in common?

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John McCarthy was a computer science and cognitive scientist who coined the term artificial intelligence. A team of six people has 15 lines of communication, a team of seven people has 21, and a team of nine people has 36 lines of communication [n members in a group produces n(n-1)/2 lines of communication]. The autocratic style worked when the leader merely observed the boys' behavior. Before exploring the benefits of dynamic systems and chaos theory, we must apply the principles of artificial intelligence, mass collaboration and group dynamics to expand our knowledge of how systems self-organize.


Lessons From Isaac Asimov's Multivac

The Atlantic

I suggest we look at why our newest digital tools--until recently, celebrated as bearers of a new age of democratic wisdom and civic health--have largely failed to deliver on those promises. The real threat is when technical progress is relied upon as a substitute for moral progress in cultivating the civic virtues, norms, and values that sustain functional democracies. At this year's RSA information security conference, Eric Schmidt, the chairman of Alphabet, attributed the recalcitrant challenge of Internet security to a technocrat's blind spot: in designing internet platforms and protocols that would eventually be vulnerable to hackers, he said, "it didn't occur to us that there were criminals." More to the point, the designs of such platforms have assumed civic virtues as inputs, rather than helping to cultivate them--virtues like integrity, courage, empathy, perspective, benevolence, and respect for truth necessary to fuel any democratic technology, analog or digital.


After 75 years, Isaac Asimov's Three Laws of Robotics need updating

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But in the 75 years since the publication of the first story to feature his ethical guidelines, there have been significant technological advancements. At the same time, artificial intelligence and machine learning are increasingly behind much of the software that affects us on a daily basis, whether we're searching the internet or being allocated government services. Asimov's suggested laws were devised to protect humans from interactions with robots. So far, emulating human behaviour has not been well researched in the field of AI and the development of rational behaviour has focused on limited, well defined areas.


An anecdotic tour on the history of programming languages

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It was named C because it was an improved B, a previous programming language, which was a simplified BCPL (hence its name). A language for computers written in 1972 being a part of an ancient religion? Five years later, in 1987, Larry Wall started working on Perl and at the end of the year version 1.0 was ready. Unfortunately, Larry, like all programmers, was more interested in writing code than its documentation, so it took 4 years and the wide adoption of the language for the Camel Book, the classic Perl book, to be written.