Part of NSF's Recovering MIT's AI Film History Project. "Here you will find a rough chronology of some of AI's most influential projects. It is intended for both non-scientists and those ready to continue experimentation and research tomorrow. Included is a taste of who the main players have been, concepts they and their projects have explored and how the goals of AI have evolved and changed over time. Many will be surprised that some of what we now consider obvious tools like search engines, spell check and spam filters are all outcroppings of AI research."
With McCulloch, Pitts had laid the foundations for cybernetics and artificial intelligence. They had steered psychiatry away from Freudian analysis and toward a mechanistic understanding of thought. They had shown that the brain computes and that mentation is the processing of information. In doing so, they had also shown how a machine could compute, providing the key inspiration for the architecture of modern computers
Computer scientist Brian Randell was the man who started uncovering the history of Colossus.That history had to be prised out of the archives because official efforts to cover up its success worked so well. Thousands of people worked in the huts at Bletchley Park during WWII on code-cracking but only a handful were involved with Colossus and fewer still knew everything about it.
Computer scientist Brian Randell was the man who started uncovering the history of Colossus.
That history had to be prised out of the archives because official efforts to cover up its success worked so well. Thousands of people worked in the huts at Bletchley Park during WWII on code-cracking but only a handful were involved with Colossus and fewer still knew everything about it.
Turing's genius was to compare machines with humans. To any outsider it was an unlikely place, but the modern era of computers began on May 28, 1936, when the editors of the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society received a paper with the rather cumbersome title, "On Computable Numbers, With an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem" by Alan M. Turing. Turing's 1936 paper on computable numbers hit that rare bull's eye where philosophy and discovery overlap. But unlike Church, who used the standard abstractions of pure mathematics in his argument, Turing wrote of machines, algorithms, ink, paper tape, and computation. (Before Turing, a "computer" referred not to a machine, but to a human being who calculated with paper and pencil.)
She is a Regents' Professor of Cognitive Science at the Georgia Institute of Technology with joint appointments in the Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts School of Public Policy and the College of Computing School of Interactive Computing. Nersessian is one of the pioneers of the interdisciplinary field of cognitive studies of science and technology, which comprises psychologists, philosophers of science, artificial intelligence researchers and cognitive anthropologists. So, I was inspired to study math and physics, but in retrospect this was the beginning of my life as a philosopher and cognitive scientist. I was hooked I changed to a double major in physics and philosophy, and headed to graduate school to study the philosophy of physics.
An internationally recognized pioneer in the field is Judea Pearl, a professor at UCLA, who on March 29 will add to his string of honors and awards the Harvey Prize in Science and Technology from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. In 2008, on receiving the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science from the Franklin Institute, Pearl was credited with research that changed the face of computer science, and his three books recognized as being among the most influential works in shaping the theory and practice of knowledge-based systems.
Since receiving her doctorate in 1992, Manuela Veloso's research interests in artificial intelligence have focused on duplicating the success with which humans plan, learn and execute tasks. Founding a robot soccer dynasty was purely coincidental. By David Hart. NSF Discovery (March 24, 2004).
See Appendix A (p.69) "Computer Science Department Theses" for Ph.D. dissertations.
See Appendix B (p.77) "Artificial Intelligence Memos" for technical reports from the the Stanford AI Lab.
Stuart C. Shapiro, A net structure for semantic information storage, deduction and retrieval. In Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-71), Morgan Kaufmann, Inc., Los Altos, CA, 1971, 512-523.
D. P. McKay and S. C. Shapiro. Using active connection graphs for reasoning with recursive rules. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-81), pages 368-374, Los Altos, CA, 1981. Morgan Kaufmann.
Anthony S. Maida and Stuart C. Shapiro, Intensional concepts in propositional semantic networks. Cognitive Science, 6(4):291-330, 1982. Reprinted in R. J. Brachman and H. J. Levesque, eds. Readings in Knowledge Representation, Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA, 1985, 170-189.
Stuart C. Shapiro and William J. Rapaport, SNePS considered as a fully intensional propositional semantic network. In N. Cercone and G. McCalla, editors, The Knowledge Frontier, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987, 263-315.
João P. Martins and Stuart C. Shapiro. A model for belief revision. Artificial Intelligence, 35(1):25-79, 1988.
"The materials primarily concern his work in artificial intelligence at Stanford University and includes administrative files, correspondence, project files, trip files, proposals, reports, reprints, Artificial Intelligence Lab memos, audio tapes, video tapes, and files on computer programs, mainly DENDRAL, MOLGEN, ARPA, EPAM, and SUMEX."
Tips for searching/browsing the site:
See also: Feigenbaum, E.A.: A Companion Site to the Edward A. Feigenbaum Collection.
Interviews at the AAAI 2006 conference with 28 AAAI Fellows:
Bobrow, Brachman, Brooks, Buchanan, Buchanan-speech, Bundy, Doyle, Feigenbaum, Hendler, Kahn, Kautz, Kuipers, McDermott, Michalski, Minsky, Nilsson, Rich, Rissland, Selman, Sidner, Simmons, Sussman, Swartout, Szolovits, Veloso, Wilkins, Winston, Woolf
Cost curves: An improved Method for visualizing classifier performance, Chris Drummond and Robert C. Holte (2006), Machine Learning, volume 65(1), pp. 95-130.
Exploiting the Cost (In)sensitivity of Decision Tree Splitting Criteria. Chris Drummond, and Robert C. Holte (2000). Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML'2000), pp. 239-246.
Machine Learning for the Detection of Oil Spills in Satellite Radar Images Miroslav Kubat, Robert C. Holte and Stan Matwin (1998), Machine Learning, volume 30, pp. 195-215.
Theory and Applications of Agnostic PAC-Learning with Small Decision Trees. Peter Auer, Robert C. Holte, and Wolfgang Maass (1995). Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Machine Learning (ML'95), A. Prieditis and S. Russell (editors), pages 21-29.
Very Simple Classification Rules Perform Well on Most Commonly Used Datasets. Robert C. Holte (1993). Machine Learning, vol. 11, pp. 63-91.
Concept Learning and the Problem of Small Disjuncts. Robert C. Holte, L. Acker, and B. Porter (1989). Proceedings of the Eleventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-89), pp. 813-818.
(1) Understanding Understanding Mathematics, Cognitive Science 2, 361-383, 1978. (2) Example Generation, Proc. 3rd Biennial Conf of the Canadian Society for Comp. Studies of Intelligence, 1980 (3) The Ubiquitous Dialectic, Proc. 6th European Conf. on AI (ECAI-84), 1984. (4) (Rissland & Ashley) -- A Case-Based System for Trade Secrets Law, Proc. 1st Int'l Conf on AI and Law, 1987.(5) Dimension-Based Analysis of Hypotheticals from Supreme Court Oral Argument, Proc. 2nd Int'l Conf on AI and Law, 1989(6) Artificial Intelligence and Law: Stepping Stones to a Model of Legal Reasoning, Yale Law Journal, June 1990
(7) (Rissland & Skalak) -- CABARET: rule interpretation in a hybrid architecture, IJMMS, 1991
(8) (Skalak & Rissland) -- Arguments and Cases: An Inevitable Intertwining, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 1, 3-44, 1992
(9) (Rissland & Ashley) -- A Note on Dimensions and factors, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 10: 65-77, 2002.(10) AI and Similarity, IEEE Intelligent Systems, Vol 21, No. 3, May/June 2006.
Modeling Spatial Knowledge, Cognitive Science, 1978.This is the first comprehensive computational model of the cognitive map.
Factoring the Mapping Problem: the Hybrid Spatial Semantic Hierarchy, IJRR, 2010.The current culmination of the Spatial Semantic Hierarchy thread.
Map Learning with Uninterpreted Sensors and Effectors, AIJ, 1997.This is a particularly early exploration of foundational learning, with highly restricted prior knowledge.
An Intellectual History of the Spatial Semantic Hierarchy, 2008.This is a personal history of the development of these ideas.
Papers by Russell online.
Historical note: "The idea of robots playing soccer was first mentioned by Professor Alan Mackworth (University of British Columbia, Canada) in a paper entitled 'On Seeing Robots' presented at VI-92, 1992. and later published in a book Computer Vision: System, Theory, and Applications, pages 1-13, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 1993. A series of papers on the Dynamo robot soccer project was published by his group. Independently, a group of Japanese researchers organized a Workshop on Grand Challenges in Artificial Intelligence in October, 1992 in Tokyo, discussing possible grand challenge problems. This workshop led to a serious discussions of using the game of soccer for promoting science and technology."---from A Brief History of RoboCup.
Computer scientist and AI pioneer EDWARD A. FEIGENBAUM has partnered with Stanford Libraries to make his personal papers available online, including more than 16,500 notes, scientific development documents, correspondence, Artificial Intelligence Lab memos, audio tapes and videos.
Marvin Minsky, who combined a scientist’s thirst for knowledge with a philosopher’s quest for truth as a pioneering explorer of artificial intelligence, work that helped inspire the creation of the personal computer and the Internet, died on Sunday night [Jan. 24, 2016] in Boston. He was 88.
In November 1963 -- a half century before the arrival of Google's robocars and Amazon's Kiva factory minions -- Charles Rosen dreamed up the world's first mobile "automaton. " Rosen, a researcher at the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California, envisioned a roboperson driven by neural networks, algorithms that mimic the human brain.
Every two years, IEEE Intelligent Systems acknowledges and celebrates 10 young stars in the field of AI as "AI's 10 to Watch." These accomplished researchers have all completed their doctoral work in the past five years. Despite being relatively junior in their career, each one has made impressive research contributions and had an impact in the literature — and in some cases, in real-world applications as well.
Brief summary of Joshua Lederberg's contributions to science. Shown at the presentation of the Morris F. Collin Award to Lederberg by the American College of Medical Informatics, 1999. Includes short interviews with Edward Feigenbaum, Don Lindberg, Tom Rindfleisch, Carl Djerassi, and Ted Shortliffe.
Report from the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania
Also available in the ACM Digital Library
A program is described that accepts natural
language input and makes inferences from it and paraphrases
of it . The Conceptual Dependency framework is the basis of
thi s system.
The studies reported here have been concerned with the programming of a digital computer to behave in a way which, if done by human beings oranimals, would be described as involving the process of learning. Whilethis is not the place to dwell on the importance of machine-learning procedures,or to discourse on the philosophical aspects,1 there is obviously avery large amount of work, now done by people, which is quite trivial inits demands on the intellect but does, nevertheless, involve some learning.
Also in Computers and Thought. Feigenbaum, Edward A. and Julian Feldman (Editors) 1963.