Part of NSF's Recovering MIT's AI Film History Project. "Here you will find a rough chronology of some of AI's most influential projects. It is intended for both non-scientists and those ready to continue experimentation and research tomorrow. Included is a taste of who the main players have been, concepts they and their projects have explored and how the goals of AI have evolved and changed over time. Many will be surprised that some of what we now consider obvious tools like search engines, spell check and spam filters are all outcroppings of AI research."
Computer scientist Brian Randell was the man who started uncovering the history of Colossus.That history had to be prised out of the archives because official efforts to cover up its success worked so well. Thousands of people worked in the huts at Bletchley Park during WWII on code-cracking but only a handful were involved with Colossus and fewer still knew everything about it.
Computer scientist Brian Randell was the man who started uncovering the history of Colossus.
That history had to be prised out of the archives because official efforts to cover up its success worked so well. Thousands of people worked in the huts at Bletchley Park during WWII on code-cracking but only a handful were involved with Colossus and fewer still knew everything about it.
Turing's genius was to compare machines with humans. To any outsider it was an unlikely place, but the modern era of computers began on May 28, 1936, when the editors of the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society received a paper with the rather cumbersome title, "On Computable Numbers, With an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem" by Alan M. Turing. Turing's 1936 paper on computable numbers hit that rare bull's eye where philosophy and discovery overlap. But unlike Church, who used the standard abstractions of pure mathematics in his argument, Turing wrote of machines, algorithms, ink, paper tape, and computation. (Before Turing, a "computer" referred not to a machine, but to a human being who calculated with paper and pencil.)
She is a Regents' Professor of Cognitive Science at the Georgia Institute of Technology with joint appointments in the Ivan Allen College of Liberal Arts School of Public Policy and the College of Computing School of Interactive Computing. Nersessian is one of the pioneers of the interdisciplinary field of cognitive studies of science and technology, which comprises psychologists, philosophers of science, artificial intelligence researchers and cognitive anthropologists. So, I was inspired to study math and physics, but in retrospect this was the beginning of my life as a philosopher and cognitive scientist. I was hooked I changed to a double major in physics and philosophy, and headed to graduate school to study the philosophy of physics.
An internationally recognized pioneer in the field is Judea Pearl, a professor at UCLA, who on March 29 will add to his string of honors and awards the Harvey Prize in Science and Technology from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology. In 2008, on receiving the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science from the Franklin Institute, Pearl was credited with research that changed the face of computer science, and his three books recognized as being among the most influential works in shaping the theory and practice of knowledge-based systems.
The label now has many meanings, but when the group protested 200 years ago, technology wasn't really the enemy. ... Despite their modern reputation, the original Luddites were neither opposed to technology nor inept at using it. Many were highly skilled machine operators in the textile industry. Nor was the technology they attacked particularly new. Moreover, the idea of smashing machines as a form of industrial protest did not begin or end with them. In truth, the secret of their enduring reputation depends less on what they did than on the name under which they did it.
Since receiving her doctorate in 1992, Manuela Veloso's research interests in artificial intelligence have focused on duplicating the success with which humans plan, learn and execute tasks. Founding a robot soccer dynasty was purely coincidental. By David Hart. NSF Discovery (March 24, 2004).
See Appendix A (p.69) "Computer Science Department Theses" for Ph.D. dissertations.
See Appendix B (p.77) "Artificial Intelligence Memos" for technical reports from the the Stanford AI Lab.
Stuart C. Shapiro, A net structure for semantic information storage, deduction and retrieval. In Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-71), Morgan Kaufmann, Inc., Los Altos, CA, 1971, 512-523.
D. P. McKay and S. C. Shapiro. Using active connection graphs for reasoning with recursive rules. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-81), pages 368-374, Los Altos, CA, 1981. Morgan Kaufmann.
Anthony S. Maida and Stuart C. Shapiro, Intensional concepts in propositional semantic networks. Cognitive Science, 6(4):291-330, 1982. Reprinted in R. J. Brachman and H. J. Levesque, eds. Readings in Knowledge Representation, Morgan Kaufmann, Los Altos, CA, 1985, 170-189.
Stuart C. Shapiro and William J. Rapaport, SNePS considered as a fully intensional propositional semantic network. In N. Cercone and G. McCalla, editors, The Knowledge Frontier, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1987, 263-315.
João P. Martins and Stuart C. Shapiro. A model for belief revision. Artificial Intelligence, 35(1):25-79, 1988.
"The materials primarily concern his work in artificial intelligence at Stanford University and includes administrative files, correspondence, project files, trip files, proposals, reports, reprints, Artificial Intelligence Lab memos, audio tapes, video tapes, and files on computer programs, mainly DENDRAL, MOLGEN, ARPA, EPAM, and SUMEX."
Tips for searching/browsing the site:
See also: Feigenbaum, E.A.: A Companion Site to the Edward A. Feigenbaum Collection.
Interviews at the AAAI 2006 conference with 28 AAAI Fellows:
Bobrow, Brachman, Brooks, Buchanan, Buchanan-speech, Bundy, Doyle, Feigenbaum, Hendler, Kahn, Kautz, Kuipers, McDermott, Michalski, Minsky, Nilsson, Rich, Rissland, Selman, Sidner, Simmons, Sussman, Swartout, Szolovits, Veloso, Wilkins, Winston, Woolf
The original conference paper in AAAI on Anytime Algorithms:  Thomas Dean and Mark Boddy. An analysis of time-dependent planning. In Proceedings AAAI-88, pages 49-54, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1988. AAAI, MIT Press.
and the subsequent, much delayed journal paper in AIJ:  Mark Boddy and Thomas Dean. Decision-theoretic deliberation scheduling for problem solving in time-constrained environments. Artificial Intelligence, 67(2):245-286, 1994. (PDF)
Earliest journal papers on what would come to be called DBNs (Dynamic Belief Networks) in Russell and Norvig:
The most cited work on MDPs (Markov Decision Processes) for probabilistic planning:  Craig Boutilier, Thomas Dean, and Steve Hanks. Decision theoretic planning: Structural assumptions and computational leverage. Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research, 11:1-94, 1999. (PDF)
Spatial and Qualitative Aspects of Reasoning about motion:
Qualitative Process theory:
Scanned version: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA465743
Compositional Modeling: Official:
The Structure-Mapping Engine: Algorithm and Examples:
Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: The Clock Project:
Forbus, K.D., Whalley, P., Everett, J., Ureel, L., Brokowski, M., Baher,
J. and Kuehne, S. (1999). CyclePad: An articulate virtual laboratory for
engineering thermodynamics. Artificial Intelligence, 114, 297-347.:
________ STANFORD COMPUTER SCIENCE DEPARTMENT THESES IN AI 1966-78 ________
[Extracted from BIBLIOGRAPHY OF STANFORD COMPUTER SCIENCE REPORTS 1963 - 1978 (Report CS-TR-78-680) ed. by Connie Stanley. ]
• D. R. Reddy, An Approach to Computer Speech Recognition by Direct Analysis of Speech Wave, 143 pages, September 1966.
• S. Persson, Some Sequence Extrapulating Programs: A Study of Representation and Modelling in nquiring Systems, 176 pages, September 1966. [U.C. Berkeley]
• Bruce Buchanan, Logics of Scientific Discovery, 210 pages, December 1966. [Michigan State University]
• A.C. Shaw, The Formal Description and Parsing of Pictures, 205 pages, April 1968.
• Barbara J. Huberman, A Program to Play Chess End Games, 168 pages, August 1968
• Donald L. Pieper, The Kinematics of Manipulators Under Computer Control, 157 pages, October1968.
• Donald Waterman, Machine Learning of Heuristics, 235 pages, December 1968.
• Pierre Vicens, Aspects of Speech Recognition by Computer, 210 pages, April 1969.
• Roger C. Schank, A Conceptual Dependency Representation for a Computer-Oriented Semantics, 201 pages, March 1969.
• L. B. Smith, The Use of Man-Machine Interaction in Data-Fitting Problems, 287 pages, March 1969:
• I. Pohl, .Bi-Directional and Heuristic Search in Path Problems, 157 pages, May 1969.
• Victor D. Scheinman, Design of a Computer Controlled Manipulator, 53 pages, June 1969.
• Claude Cordell Green, The Application of Theorem Proving to Question-Answering Systems, 162 pages, June 1969.
• James Jay Horning, A Study of Grammatical Inference, 166 pages, August 1969
• Joseph Becker, An Information-processing Model of htermediate-Level Cognition, 123 pages, May 1970.
• Irwin Sobel, Camera Models and Machine Perception, 89 pages, May 1970.
• Michael D. Kelly, Visual Identification of People br Computer, 138 pages, July 1970.
• G. Falk, Computer Interpretation of Imperfect Line Data as a Three-Dimensional Scene, 187 pages, October 1970.
• Jay Martin Tenenbaum, Accomodation in Computer Vision, 452 pages, Septmeber 1970.
• Lynn H. Quam, Computer Comparison of Pictures, 120 pages, May 1971.
• Rod Schmidt, A Study of the Real-Time Control of a Computer Driven Vehicle, 180 pages, August 1971.
• Robert E. Kling, Reasoning by Analogy with Applications to Heuristic Problem Solving: a Case Study, 191 pages, August 1971.
• Jonathan Leonard Ryder; Heuristic Analysis of Large Trees as Generated in the Game of Go, 350 pages, November 1971.
• William E. Riddle, The Modeling and Analysis of Supervisory Systems, 174 pages, March 1972.
• Gerald Jacob Agin, Representation and Description of Curved Objects, 125 pages, August 1972
Structured Control for Autonomous Robots, Reid Simmons, IEEE Transactions on Robotics and Automation, 10:1, pp. 34-43, February 1994.
Experience with Rover Navigation for Lunar-Like Terrains, R. Simmons, E. Krotkov, et. al, Proc. Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, Pittsburgh PA, August 1995.
Probabilistic Robot Navigation in Partially Observable Environments, R. Simmons and S. Koenig, International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Montreal Canada, August 1995.
Robot Navigation with Markov Models: A Framework for Path Planning and Learning with Limited Computational Resources, S. Koenig, R. Goodwin, and R. Simmons, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, Volume 1093: Reasoning with Uncertainty in Robotics; L. Dorst, M. van Lambalgen, and R. Voorbraak (Eds.), Springer, pp. 322-337, 1996.
ALayered Architecture for Office Delivery Robots, R. Simmons, R. Goodwin, K. Zita Haigh, S. Koenig and J. O'Sullivan, First International Conference on Autonomous Agents, Marina del Rey, CA, February 1997.
A Task Description Language for Robot Control, R. Simmons and D. Apfelbaum, Proceedings of Conference on Intelligent Robotics and Systems, Vancouver Canada, October 1998.
Lessons Learned From Xavier, R. Simmons, J. Fernandez, R. Goodwin, S. Koenig, J. O'Sullivan. IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine, Vol 7, No 2, pp 33-39, June 2000
Historical note: "The idea of robots playing soccer was first mentioned by Professor Alan Mackworth (University of British Columbia, Canada) in a paper entitled 'On Seeing Robots' presented at VI-92, 1992. and later published in a book Computer Vision: System, Theory, and Applications, pages 1-13, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 1993. A series of papers on the Dynamo robot soccer project was published by his group. Independently, a group of Japanese researchers organized a Workshop on Grand Challenges in Artificial Intelligence in October, 1992 in Tokyo, discussing possible grand challenge problems. This workshop led to a serious discussions of using the game of soccer for promoting science and technology."---from A Brief History of RoboCup.
In November 1963 -- a half century before the arrival of Google's robocars and Amazon's Kiva factory minions -- Charles Rosen dreamed up the world's first mobile "automaton. " Rosen, a researcher at the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California, envisioned a roboperson driven by neural networks, algorithms that mimic the human brain.
Every two years, IEEE Intelligent Systems acknowledges and celebrates 10 young stars in the field of AI as "AI's 10 to Watch." These accomplished researchers have all completed their doctoral work in the past five years. Despite being relatively junior in their career, each one has made impressive research contributions and had an impact in the literature — and in some cases, in real-world applications as well.
During Wilensky’s tenure at UC Berkeley, he served as chair of the Computer Science Division, director of the Berkeley Cognitive Science Program, director of the Berkeley Artificial Intelligence Research Project, and board member of the International Computer Science Institute.
“When he joined our department, he began building up a program in artificial intelligence at UC Berkeley, and he succeeded wonderfully,” said longtime colleague Richard Fateman, UC Berkeley professor emeritus of computer science and co-investigator on the Digital Library project. “He was extraordinarily successful in conceiving and executing ideas that led to infrastructure improvement for all his colleagues and contributed to the advancement of technology in programs that are widely used in document processing and Web access. He really was exceptional.”
Wilensky was also instrumental in establishing UC Berkeley’s Cognitive Science Program, helping organizing the diverse campus faculty and leading competitive grants at a time when the research field was in its infancy.
An 18th Century automaton that could beat human chess opponents seemingly marked the arrival of artificial intelligence. But what turned out to be an elaborate hoax had its own sense of genius, says Adam Gopnik.
...So the inventor's real genius was not to build a chess-playing machine. It was to be the first to notice that, in the modern world, there is more mastery available than you might think; that exceptional talent is usually available, and will often work cheap.
Brief summary of Joshua Lederberg's contributions to science. Shown at the presentation of the Morris F. Collin Award to Lederberg by the American College of Medical Informatics, 1999. Includes short interviews with Edward Feigenbaum, Don Lindberg, Tom Rindfleisch, Carl Djerassi, and Ted Shortliffe.
Report from the Moore School of Electrical Engineering, University of Pennsylvania
Also available in the ACM Digital Library
The studies reported here have been concerned with the programming of a digital computer to behave in a way which, if done by human beings oranimals, would be described as involving the process of learning. Whilethis is not the place to dwell on the importance of machine-learning procedures,or to discourse on the philosophical aspects,1 there is obviously avery large amount of work, now done by people, which is quite trivial inits demands on the intellect but does, nevertheless, involve some learning.
Also in Computers and Thought. Feigenbaum, Edward A. and Julian Feldman (Editors) 1963.
A program is described that accepts natural
language input and makes inferences from it and paraphrases
of it . The Conceptual Dependency framework is the basis of
thi s system.