Publication

Computers and Thought

This collection includes twenty classic papers by such pioneers as A. M. Turing and Marvin Minsky who were behind the pivotal advances in artificially simulating human thought processes with computers.

All Parts are available as downloadable pdf files; most individual chapters are also available separately.

 

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments

 

Part 1: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Introduction

 

Section 1. Can a Machine Think?

COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE A. M. Turing

 

Section 2. Machines That Play Games

CHESS-PLAYING PROGRAMS AND THE PROBLEM OF COMPLEXITY Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and H.A. Simon

SOME STUDIES IN MACHINE LEARNING USING THE GAME OF CHECKERS A. L. Samuel

 

Section 3. Machines That Prove Mathematical Theorems

EMPIRICAL EXPLORATIONS WITH THE LOGIC THEORY MACHINE: A CASE STUDY IN HEURISTICS Allen Newell J.C. Shaw and H.A. Simon

REALIZATION OF A GEOMETRY-THEOREM PROVING MACHINE H. Gelernter

EMPIRICAL EXPLORATIONS OF THE GEOMETRY-THEOREM PROVING MACHINE H. Gelernter, J.R. Hansen, and D. W. Loveland

 

Section 4. Two Important Applications

SUMMARY OF A HEURISTIC LINE BALANCING PROCEDURE Fred M. Tonge

A HEURISTIC PROGRAM THAT SOLVES SYMBOLIC INTEGRATION PROBLEMS IN FRESHMAN CALCULUS James R. Slagle

 

Section 5. Question-answering Machines

BASEBALL: AN AUTOMATIC QUESTION ANSWERER Green, Bert F. Jr., Alice K. Wolf, Carol Chomsky, and Kenneth Laughery

INFERENTIAL MEMORY AS THE BASIS OF MACHINES WHICH UNDERSTAND NATURAL LANGUAGE Robert K. Lindsay

 

Section 6. Pattern Recognition

PATTERN RECOGNITION BY MACHINE Oliver G. Selfridge and Ulric Neisser

A PATTERN-RECOGNITION PROGRAM THAT GENERATES, EVALUATES, AND ADJUSTS ITS OWN OPERATORS Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler

 

Part 2: SIMULATION OF COGNITIVE PROCESSES

Introduction

 

Section 1. Problem-solving

GPS, A PROGRAM THAT SIMULATES HUMAN THOUGHT Allen Newell and H.A. Simon

 

Section 2. Verbal Learning and Concept Formation

THE SIMULATION OF VERBAL LEARNING BEHAVIOR Edward A. Feigenbaum

PROGRAMMING A MODEL OF HUMAN CONCEPT FORMULATION Earl B. Hunt and Carl I. Hovland

 

Section 3. Decision-making under Uncertainty

SIMULATION OF BEHAVIOR IN THE BINARY CHOICE EXPERIMENT Julian Feldman

A MODEL OF THE TRUST INVESTMENT PROCESS Geoffrey P. E. Clarkson

 

Section 4. Social Behavior

A COMPUTER MODEL OF ELEMENTARY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR John T. Gullahorn and Jeanne E. Gullahorn

 

PART 3: SURVEY OF APPROACHES AND ATTITUDES

Introduction

ATTITUDES TOWARD INTELLIGENT MACHINES Paul Armer

STEPS TOWARD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Marvin Minsky

 

Part 4: BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

A SELECTED DESCRIPTOR-INDEXED BIBLIOGRAPHY TO THE LITERATURE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Marvin Minsky

 

INDEX

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