Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
Pearl, J. Evidential reasoning using stochastic simulation of causal models 1987
Pearl, J. and Korf, R. Search techniques 1987 Heuristic Search
Pearl, J. and Verma, T. The Logic of Representing Dependencies by Directed Graphs 1987
Pereira, F. and Shieber, S. Prolog and Natural-Language Analysis 1987
Peterson, C. and Anderson, J. R. A mean field theory learning algorithm for neural networks 1987
Reiter, Ray Nonmonotonic reasoning 1987
Rennels ,G., E. H. Shortliffe, F. E. Stockdale, P. L. Miller A Computational Model of Reasoning from the Clinical Literature 1987 Natural Language Understanding, Case-Based Reasoning, Web & AI
Reynolds, C. W. Flocks, herds, and schools: A distributed behavioral model 1987
Rivest, R. Learning decision lists 1987
Russell, S. J. and Grosof, B. A declarative approach to bias in concept learning 1987
Schoppers, M. J. Universal plans for reactive robots in unpredictable environments 1987
Schwartz, J. T., Scharir,M., and Hopcroft, J. Planning, Geometry and Complexity of Robot Motion 1987
Shachter, R. D. and Heckerman, D. Thinking backward for knowledge acquisition 1987
Shapiro, Stuart and David Eckroth (eds.) The Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence 1987 Education
Shirai, Y. Three-dimensional computer vision 1987
Smith, J. Q. Decision analysis: a Bayesian approach 1987 Bayesian Inference
Bancilhon, F., Maier, D., Sagiv, Y., and Ullman, J. D. Magic sets and other strange ways to implement logic programs 1986 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Bratko, I. Prolog Programming for Artificial Intelligence 1986 Programming Languages
Brooks, Rodney A robust, layered, control system for a mobile robot 1986 Robot Planning & Action
Bundy, A. (Ed.) Catalogue of artificial intelligence tools 1986 Systems & Languages
Canny, J. A computational approach to edge detection 1986 Vision
Canny, J. F. Finding edges and lines in images 1986 Vision
Carbonell, J. G. Derivational analogy: a theory of reconstructive problem solving and expertise acquisition 1986 Representation & Reasoning, Analogical Reasoning, Case-Based Reasoning
Chandrasekaran, B. Generic tasks in knowledge-based reasoning: High-level building blocks for expert system design 1986 Expert Systems
Churchland, P. S. Neurophilosophy: Toward a Unified Science of the Mind–Brain 1986
Cruse, D. A. Lexical Semantics 1986
Davis, E. Representing and Acquiring Geographic Knowledge 1986
de Kleer, Johan An assumption-based truth maintenance system 1986
DeJong, G. and Mooney, R. Explanation-based learning: An alternative view 1986
Dietterich, Tom Learning at the knowledge level 1986 Machine Learning
Dreyfus, H. L. and Dreyfus, S. E. Mind over Machine: The Power of Human Intuition and Expertise in the Era of the Computer 1986
Fisher, R. B. From surfaces to objects : Recognizing objects using surface information and object models. 1986 Vision
Fisher, R. B. From surfaces to objects : Recognizing objects using surface information and object models. 1986 Vision
Gallier, J. H. Logic for Computer Science: Foundations of Automatic Theorem Proving 1986
Grosz, B. J., and Sidner, C. L. Attention, intention, and the structure of discourse 1986
Hanks, Steve and Drew McDermott Default Reasoning, Nonmonotonic Logics, and the Frame Problem 1986 Representation & Reasoning, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Haussler, David Quantifying the Inductive Bias in Concept Learning 1986 Machine Learning, Inductive Learning
Hinton, G. E. and Sejnowski, T. Learning and relearning in Boltzmann machines 1986
Horn, B. K. P. Robot Vision 1986
Horvitz, E. J. and Heckerman, D. The inconsistent use of measures of certainty in artificial intelligence research 1986
Horvitz, E. J., Heckerman, D., and Langlotz, C. P. A framework for comparing alternative formalisms for plausible reasoning 1986
Iwasaki, Y., and Simon, H. A. Causality in device behavior 1986
Kanade, Takeo, Chuck Thorpe, and William Whittaker Autonomous Land Vehicle Project at CMU 1986 Autonomous Vehicles, Robots
Khatib, O. Real-time obstacle avoidance for robot manipulator andmobile robots 1986
Kowalski, R. and Sergot, M. A logic-based calculus of events 1986
Kuipers, B. Qualitative simulation 1986
Kumar, P. R. and Varaiya, P. Stochastic Systems: Estimation, Identification, and Adaptive Control 1986
Laird, J., Rosenbloom, P. and Newell, A. Universal Subgoaling and Chunking: The Automatic Generation and Learning of Goal Hierarchies 1986
Laird, J., Rosenbloom, P. S., and Newell, A. Chunking in Soar: The anatomy of a general learning mechanism 1986 Cognitive Science, Cognitive Architectures, Machine Learning
Levesque, Hector Knowledge representation and reasoning 1986