Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
Waltz, D. L. An English language question answering system for a large relational data base 1989 Question Answering
Watkins, C. J. Models of Delayed Reinforcement Learning 1989 Reinforcement Learning
Winograd, T. Language as a cognitive process 1989
Allis, L. A knowledge-based approach to connect four 1988 Games & Puzzles
Alterman, R. Adaptive planning 1988 Planning & Scheduling
Bar-Shalom, Y. and Fortmann, T. E. Tracking and Data Association 1988
Baum, E. and Wilczek, F. Supervised learning of probability distributions by neural networks 1988 Neural Networks
Bledsoe, Woodrow and Richard Hodges A Survey of Automated Deduction 1988 Automated Theorem Proving
Brown, C., Finkelstein, L., and Purdom, P. Backtrack searching in the presence of symmetry 1988 Heuristic Search
Brown, P. F., Cocke, J., Della Pietra, S. A., Della Pietra, V. J., Jelinek, F., Mercer, R. L., and Roossin, P. A statistical approach to language translation 1988 Machine Translation
Buchanan, Bruce and Reid Smith Fundamentals of expert systems 1988 Expert Systems
Canny, J. The Complexity of Robot Motion Planning 1988 Robot Planning & Action
Cheeseman, P. An inquiry into computer understanding 1988
Cheeseman, P., Kelly, J., Self, M., Stutz, J., Taylor, W., and Freeman, D. Autoclass: A Bayesian classification system 1988
Cheeseman, P., Self, M., Kelly, J., and Stutz, J. Bayesian classification 1988 Bayesian Inference
Clancey, W. J. Acquiring, representing, and evaluating a competence model of diagnostic strategy 1988
Cohen, Harold How to draw three people in a botanical garden 1988 Art, Creativity & Intelligence
Conry, S. E., Meyer, R. A., and Lesser, V. R. Multistage negotiation in distributed planning 1988
Cybenko, G. Continuous valued neural networks with two hidden layers are sufficient 1988
Davis, Randall and Walter Hamscher Model-based reasoning: Troubleshooting 1988 Diagrammatic Reasoning, Expert Systems
Dean, T. and Boddy,M. An analysis of time-dependent planning 1988
Draper, B. A., Collins, R. T., Brolio, J., Hanson, A. R., and Riseman, E. M. Issues in the development of a blackboard-based schema system for image understanding 1988
Erdmann, M. A. and Mason, M. An exploration of sensorless manipulation 1988
Falkenhainer, B., and Forbus, K. Setting up large-scale qualitative models 1988
Feigenbaum, E. A., McCorduck, P., and Nii, H. P. The Rise of the Expert Company: How Visionary Companies Are Using Artificial Intelligence to Achieve Higher Productivity and Profits 1988 Business & Manufacturing, Expert Systems
Forbus, Ken Qualitative physics: Past, present and future 1988
Gelfond, M. and Lifschitz, V. Compiling circumscriptive theories into logic programs 1988 Representation & Reasoning, Nonmonotonic Logic
Ginsberg, A., Automatic Refinement of Expert System Knowledge Bases 1988 Machine Learning, Expert Systems
Haussler, D. Quantifying inductive bias: AI learning algorithms and Valiant’s learning framework 1988
Henrion, M. Propagation of uncertainty in Bayesian networks by probabilistic logic sampling 1988
Horvitz, E. J., Breese, J. S., and Henrion, M. Decision theory in expert systems and artificial intelligence 1988
Hubel, D. H. Eye, Brain, and Vision 1988
Kanal, L. N. and Kumar, V. Search in Artificial Intelligence 1988
Kowalski, R. The early years of logic programming 1988
Kuipers, B. J. and Levitt, T. S. Navigation and mapping in large-scale space 1988
Kuipers, B. J. and Yun-Tai Byun A Robust, Qualitative Method for Robot Spatial Learning 1988 Representation & Reasoning, Qualitative Reasoning
Kumar, V. and Kanal, L. N. The CDP: A unifying formulation for heuristic search, dynamic programming, and branch-and-bound 1988
Kumar, V., Nau, D. S., and Kanal, L. N. A general branch-and-bound formulation for AND/OR graph and game tree search 1988
Lauritzen, S. and Spiegelhalter, D. J. Local computations with probabilities on graphical structures and their application to expert systems 1988
McAllester, D. A. Conspiracy numbers for min-max search 1988
McCawley, J. D. The Syntactic Phenomena of English 1988
McDermott, John Preliminary steps toward a taxonomy of problem-solving methods 1988
Minsky, M. L. and Papert, S. Perceptrons: An Introduction to Computational Geometry 1988
Minton, S. Quantitative results concerning the utility of explanation-based learning 1988
Muggleton, S. H. and Buntine, W. Machine invention of first-order predicates by inverting resolution 1988
Norvig, P. Multiple simultaneous interpretations of ambiguous sentences 1988
Pearl, J. Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems: Networks of Plausible Inference 1988
Perrault, Ray and Barbara Grosz Natural language interfaces 1988 Interfaces
Rich, Charles and Richard Waters The programmer's apprentice: A research overview 1988
Rosenbloom, P. S. & Newell, A. An Integrated Computational Model of Stimulus-Response Compatibility and Practice 1988