Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
Chakrabarti, P. P., Ghose, S., Acharya, A., and de Sarkar, S. C. Heuristic search in restricted memory 1989 Heuristic Search
Chatfield, C. The Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction 1989
Clark, P. and Niblett, T. The CN2 induction algorithm 1989 Machine Learning, Inductive Learning
Conlisk, J. Three variants on the Allais example 1989
Connell, J. A Colony Architecture for an Artificial Creature 1989
Craig, J. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Control 1989
de Kleer, J. A comparison of ATMS and CSP techniques 1989
Dean, Thomas and Keiji Kanazawa. Persistence and probabilistic inference 1989
Dean, Thomas and Keiji Kanazawa. A model for reasoning about persistence and causation 1989
Dean,Thomas and Keiji Kanazawa A Model for Reasoning about Persistence and Causation 1989
Dechter, R. and Pearl, J. Tree clustering for constraint networks 1989
Durfee, E. H. and Lesser, V. R. Negotiating task decomposition and allocation using partial global planning 1989 Multi-Agent Systems
Etzioni, O. Tractable decision-analytic control 1989
Falkenhainer, B., Forbus, K., and Gentner, D. The structure-mapping engine: Algorithm and examples 1989
Fox, M. An organizational view of distributed systems 1989
Fung, R. and Chang, K. C. Weighting and integrating evidence for stochastic simulation in Bayesian networks 1989
Gentner, D. The mechanisms of analogical learning 1989
Gentner, D., and Collins, A. M. Knowing about knowing: Effects of meta-knowledge on inference 1989
Gittins, J. C. Multi-Armed Bandit Allocation Indices 1989
Greiner, R. Towards a formal analysis of EBL 1989
Hammond, K. Case-Based Planning: Viewing Planning as a Memory Task 1989
Hansson, O. and Mayer, A. Heuristic search as evidential reasoning 1989
Haussler, D. Learning conjunctive concepts in structural domains 1989
Hildreth, EIIen and Shimon Ullman The computational study of vision 1989 Vision
Hinton, G. E. Connectionist learning procedures 1989 Neural Networks
Horn, B. K. P. and Brooks,M. J. Shape from Shading 1989
Horvitz, E. J. Rational meta-reasoning and compilation for optimizing decisions under bounded resources 1989
Howard, R. A. Microrisks for medical decision analysis 1989
Lauritzen, S. and Wermuth, N. Graphical models for associations between variables, some of which are qualitative and some quantitative 1989
LeCun, Y., Jackel, L., Boser, B., and Denker, J. Handwritten digit recognition: Applications of neural network chips and automatic learning 1989
Lesser, V. R., and Erman, L. D. Distributed Interpretation: A Model and Experiment 1989 Multi-Agent Systems, Problem-Independent Architectures
Levy, D. The million pound bridge program 1989
McCarthy, John Artificial Intelligence, Logic and Formalizing Common Sense 1989 Commonsense Reasoning, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Minton, S., J. Carbonell, C. Knoblock, D.R. Kuokka, O. Etzioni, and Y. Gil Explanation-Based Learning: A Problem-Solving Perspective 1989
Mostow, J. and Prieditis, A. E. Discovering admissible heuristics by abstracting and optimizing: A transformational approach 1989
Moutarlier, P. and Chatila, R. Stochastic multisensory data fusion for mobile robot location and environment modeling 1989
Mumford, D. and Shah, J. Optimal approximations by piece-wise smooth functions and associated variational problems 1989
M´ezard, M. and Nadal, J.-P. Learning in feed forward layered networks: The tiling algorithm 1989
Penrose, R. The Emperor's New Mind 1989 Arguments Against AI
Pomerleau, Dean ALVINN: An Autonomous Land Vehicle in a Neural Network 1989 Autonomous Vehicles, Neural Networks
Rouveirol, C. and Puget, J.-F. A simple and general solution for inverting resolution 1989
Russell, S. J. and Wefald, E. H. On optimal game-tree search using rational meta-reasoning 1989
Schoppers, M. J. In defense of reaction plans as caches 1989
Shachter, R. D. and Kenley, C. R. Gaussian influence diagrams 1989
Shachter, R. D. and Peot, M. Simulation approaches to general probabilistic inference on belief networks 1989
Shafer, G., Shenoy, P. P., and Mellouli, K. Propagating belief functions in qualitative Markov trees 1989
Simon, J. C. and Dubois, O. Number of solutions to satisfiability instances—Applications to knowledge bases 1989
Tambe, M. & Rosenbloom, P. S. Eliminating expensive chunks by restricting expressiveness 1989
Tesauro, G. and Sejnowski, T. A parallel network that learns to play backgammon 1989 Backgammon, Reinforcement Learning
Unruh, A. & Rosenbloom, P. S. Abstraction in problem solving and learning, 1989