Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
Hsu, F.-H., Anantharaman, T. S., Campbell, M. S., and Nowatzyk, A. A grandmaster chess machine 1990 Chess
Huttenlocher, D. and Ullman, S. Recognizing solid objects by alignment with an image 1990
Judd, J. S. Neural Network Design and the Complexity of Learning 1990 Neural Networks
Kaelbling, L. P. and Rosenschein, S. J. Action and planning in embedded agents 1990
Kartam, N. A. and Levitt, R. E. A constraint-based approach to construction planning of multi-story buildings 1990
Kearns, M. The Computational Complexity of Machine Learning 1990
Koenderink, J. J. Solid Shape 1990
Korf, R. E. Real-time heuristic search 1990
Lari, K. and Young, S. J. The estimation of stochastic context-free grammars using the insideoutside algorithm 1990
Lauritzen, S., Dawid, A. P., Larsen, B., and Leimer, H. Independence properties of directed Markov fields 1990
Lenat, D. B. and Guha, R. V. Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems: Representation and Inference in the CYC Project 1990 Representation & Reasoning, Commonsense Reasoning
Maes, Pattie and Rodney Brooks Learning to Coordinate Behaviors 1990
Malik, J. and Perona, P. Preattentive texture discrimination with early vision mechanisms 1990
Marsland, A. T. and Schaeffer, J. (Eds.) Computers, Chess, and Cognition 1990
Martin, J. H. A Computational Model of Metaphor Interpretation 1990
Michalski, R. S. Toward a unified theory of learning: Multistrategy task-adaptive learning 1990
Miller, George A. et al. WORDNET: A Lexical Database for English 1990 Grammars & Parsing
Minton, Steven ,Mark D. Johnston, Andrew B. Philips, and Philip Laird Solving Large-Scale Constraint Satisfaction and Scheduling Problems Using a Heuristic Repair Method 1990
Mitchell, T.M. Becoming increasingly reactive mobile robots 1990 Robots
Muggleton, S. H. and Feng, C. Efficient induction of logic programs 1990
Murthy, C. and Russell, J. R. A constructive proof of Higman’s lemma 1990
Newell, A. Unified Theories of Cognition 1990 AI Overview, Cognitive Science, Cognitive Architectures
Oliver, R. M. and Smith, J. Q. (Eds.) Influence Diagrams, Belief Nets and Decision Analysis 1990 Representation & Reasoning, Bayesian Inference
Porter, B. W., Bareiss, R., and Holte, R. C. Concept learning and heuristic classification in weak-theory domains 1990
Quinlan, J. R. Learning logical definitions from relations 1990 Decision Tree Learning
Schapire, R. E. The Strength of Weak Learnability 1990
Searle, J. R. Is the brain’s mind a computer program? 1990
Shachter, R. D., D’Ambrosio, B., and Del Favero, B. A. Symbolic probabilistic inference in belief networks 1990
Shaw, M. L. G. and Woodward, J. B. Modeling expert knowledge 1990
Srivas, M. and Bickford, M. Formal verification of a pipelined microprocessor 1990
Subramanian, D. and Feldman, R. The utility of EBL in recursive domain theories 1990
Sutton, R. S. Integrated architectures for learning, planning, and reacting based on approximating dynamic programming 1990
Tambe, M., Newell, A. & Rosenbloom, P. S. The problem of expensive chunks and its solution by restricting expressiveness. 1990 Systems & Languages
Tatman, J. A. and Shachter, R. D. Dynamic programming and influence diagrams 1990
Van Roy, P. L. Can logic programming execute as fast as imperative programming? 1990
Weiss, S. M. and Kulikowski, C. A. Computer Systems that Learn: Classification and Prediction Methods from Statistics 1990 Machine Learning, Neural Networks, Statistical Learning Methods, Expert Systems
Weld, D. S. and de Kleer, J. (Eds.) Readings in Qualitative Reasoning about Physical Systems 1990 Qualitative Reasoning
Wilkins, D. E. Can AI planners solve practical problems? 1990 Planning & Scheduling
Yang, Q. Formalizing planning knowledge for hierarchical planning 1990
Yoshikawa, T. Foundations of Robotics: Analysis and Control 1990 Robots
Abramson, B. and Yung, M. Divide and conquer under global constraints: A solution to the N-queens problem 1989 Constraint-Based Reasoning, Heuristic Search
Andersen, S. K., Olesen, K. G., Jensen, F. V., and Jensen, F. HUGIN—A shell for building Bayesian belief universes for expert systems 1989 Bayesian Inference, Expert Systems
Baum, E. and Haussler, D. What size net gives valid generalization? 1989 Machine Learning
Blumer, A., Ehrenfeucht, A., Haussler, D., and Warmuth, M. Learnability and the Vapnik- Chervonenkis dimension 1989 Learning Theory
Booker, L. B., Goldberg, D. E., and Holland, J. H. Classifier systems and genetic algorithms 1989 Machine Learning, Evolutionary Algorithms
Boose, J. H. A survey of knowledge acquisition techniques and tools 1989 Expert Systems
Borgida, A., Brachman, R. J., McGuinness, D., and Alperin Resnick, L. CLASSIC: A structural data model for objects 1989 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Brooks, R. A. Engineering approach to building complete, intelligent beings 1989 Goals & Visions
BROOKS, RODNEY A. and ANITA M. FLYNN FAST, CHEAP AND OUT OF CONTROL: A ROBOT INVASION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1989 Cognitive Science, Cognitive Architectures, Systems & Languages, Problem-Independent Architectures
Carbonell, J. G., Knoblock, C. A., and Minton, S. PRODIGY: An integrated architecture for planning and learning 1989 Machine Learning, Planning & Scheduling