Classic Articles & Books

We have collected titles for about 2000 publications before 1995 that have been influential in the development of AI, for example, by introducing new concepts or methods or demonstrating a proof-of-concept.  As part of our virtual archive, we are adding URLs for onlne versions when we can find them.  Some publications have been digitized and put online here if they are not otherwise available.

Click on the title to see the digitized full text when it is available. Reorder the list by date, title, or author by clicking on one of the column headers in the classics table.

Information about the sources we used and the process for selecting entries may be found on the page Information about the Virtual Archive.

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Authors Title Year Topics
Frege, G. Begriffsschrift, eine der arithmetischen nachgebildete Formelsprache des reinen Denkens 1879 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Johnson, W. W. and Story, W. E. Notes on the "15" puzzle 1879 15 Puzzle
Schröder, E. Der Operationskreis des Logikkalküls 1877 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Gauss, C. F. Beiträge zur theorie der algebraischen gleichungen 1876 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Jevons, W. S. The Principles of Science 1874 History, Philosophy, Representation & Reasoning
Peirce, C. S. Description of a notation for the logic of relatives, resulting from an amplification of the conceptions of Boole's calculus of logic 1870 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Butler, S. Erewhon 1865 The Future, Science Fiction, SciFi Books & Authors
De Morgan, A. On the syllogism, No IV, and on the logic of relations 1864 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Mill, J. S. Utilitarianism 1863 Ethics & Social Issues, Philosophy
Grassmann, H. Lehrbuch der Arithmetik 1861 History, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Boole, G. An Investigation of the Laws of Thought on Which are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities 1854 Philosophy, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Boole, G. The Mathematical Analysis of Logic: Being an Essay towards a Calculus of Deductive Reasoning 1847 Philosophy, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Boole, George On a general method in analysis 1844 Philosophy, Representation & Reasoning, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Mill, J. S. A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive: Being a Connected View of the Principles of Evidence, and Methods of Scientific Investigation 1843 Philosophy, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Lovelace, [Countess] A. A. Translator's notes to an article on Babbage's Analytical Engine 1842 History, People, Programs, Institutions
Cournot, A. (Ed.) Recherches sur les principes mathématiques de la théorie des richesses 1838 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Poe, Edgar Allen MAELZEL’S CHESS-PLAYER 1836 Chess, History
Fourier, J. Analyse des travaux de l’Académie Royale des Sciences, pendant l’année 1824; partie mathématique 1827 History
Shelley, Mary Frankenstein: Or, the Modern Prometheus 1818 History, SciFi Books & Authors, Science Fiction
Hoffmann, E.T.A. The Sandman 1817 Science Fiction, SciFi Books & Authors, Science Fiction
Laplace, P. Essai philosophique sur les probabilités 1816 History, Uncertainty
Gauss, C. F. Theoria Motus Corporum Coelestium in Sectionibus Conicis Solem Ambientium 1809 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Legendre, A. M. Nouvelles méthodes pour la détermination des orbites des comètes 1805 History
Bayes, T. An essay towards solving a problem in the doctrine of chances 1763 Bayesian Inference, Uncertainty
La Mettrie, J. O. L'Homme Machine 1748 Philosophy
Bernoulli, D. Specimen theoriae novae de mensura sortis 1738 Logic & Formal Reasoning
Arbuthnot, J. Of the Laws of Chance 1692 Uncertainty
Locke, John An Essay Concerning Human Understanding 1690 Nature of Intelligence, Philosophy
Raphson, J. Analysis aequationum universalis 1690
Morland, Samuel The description and use of two arithmetick instruments 1673 History
Cardano, G. Liber de ludo aleae 1663 History, Uncertainty
Arnauld, A. La logique, ou l'€™art de penser 1662 History, Philosophy, Logic & Formal Reasoning
Hobbes, Thomas The Leviathan 1651 Philosophy
Descartes, R. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking the Truth in the Sciences 1637 Philosophy
Descartes, R. Meditations on first philosophy 1637 Philosophy, Consciousness
Bacon, Francis The New Organon or True Directions concerning the interpretation of Nature 1620 Philosophy